Why JavaScript Is Referred as Object Oriented Programming Language?


Larry Thompson

JavaScript is often referred to as an object-oriented programming language, and for good reason. It has many features and functionalities that align with the principles of object-oriented programming (OOP). In this article, we will explore why JavaScript is considered as an object-oriented programming language and how it incorporates key OOP concepts.

What is Object-Oriented Programming?

Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that organizes code into reusable objects. These objects are instances of classes, which encapsulate data (properties) and behavior (methods). OOP promotes modular design, code reusability, and enhances the overall maintainability of the codebase.

Objects in JavaScript

In JavaScript, everything is an object. This means that you can create and manipulate objects directly using the built-in object-oriented capabilities of the language. Objects in JavaScript are instances of classes or constructors.

Classes: Classes in JavaScript are defined using the class keyword. They serve as blueprints for creating objects with predefined properties and methods. The class-based approach allows for easy instantiation of multiple objects with similar characteristics.

Constructors: Constructors are special functions that are used to create new instances of objects. They define how an object should be initialized when created using the new keyword. Constructors can also define properties and methods that are shared by all instances of a class.

Inheritance in JavaScript

Inheritance is a fundamental concept in OOP that allows one class to inherit properties and methods from another class. In JavaScript, inheritance can be achieved through prototype-based inheritance.

Prototypes: Every JavaScript object has a prototype property, which allows objects to inherit properties and methods from other objects. Prototypes enable the creation of a chain of objects, where each object inherits from its prototype.

Prototype Chain: The prototype chain is a hierarchical structure that enables objects to access properties and methods defined in their prototype or parent objects. This mechanism allows for code reuse and promotes a more efficient use of memory.

Polymorphism in JavaScript

Polymorphism is another important concept in OOP that allows objects to have multiple forms. In JavaScript, polymorphism can be achieved through method overriding and method overloading.

Method Overriding: Method overriding occurs when a subclass provides its own implementation of a method that is already defined in its parent class. This allows for customization and modification of inherited behavior.

Method Overloading: Method overloading involves defining multiple methods with the same name but different parameters or argument types. JavaScript does not natively support method overloading, but it can be simulated using conditional statements or by using the arguments object.

Encapsulation in JavaScript

Encapsulation is the process of hiding internal details and providing an interface for interacting with an object. While JavaScript does not have built-in access modifiers like public, private, or protected, it still supports encapsulation through closures and naming conventions.

Closures: Closures allow variables to be declared outside of an object’s scope but still accessible within its methods. This helps to achieve data privacy and encapsulation by preventing direct access to internal variables.

Naming Conventions: By using naming conventions such as prefixes or underscores (_), developers can indicate which properties or methods are intended to be private or internal, signaling that they should not be directly accessed from outside the object.


In conclusion, JavaScript is considered an object-oriented programming language because it incorporates key OOP concepts such as objects, classes, constructors, inheritance, polymorphism, and encapsulation. By leveraging these features, developers can create modular and reusable code that is easier to maintain and scale. Understanding the object-oriented nature of JavaScript is crucial for writing efficient and well-structured code.

By embracing JavaScript’s object-oriented capabilities and utilizing the various elements of OOP, you can take advantage of its power and flexibility to develop robust applications.

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