Why Do We Use Queue in Data Structure?


Angela Bailey

Queues are an essential data structure used in computer science and programming. They play a crucial role in various applications and algorithms, providing a systematic way to organize and process data. In this article, we will explore why queues are used, their characteristics, and some common use cases.

What is a Queue?

A queue is a linear collection of elements that follows the FIFO (First-In, First-Out) principle. It resembles a real-life queue or line where the first person to join will be the first to leave.

Characteristics of a Queue:

  • Insertion: Elements are added at one end called the rear or tail.
  • Deletion: Elements are removed from the other end called the front or head.
  • Order: The order in which elements are added is maintained until removal.

Why Do We Use Queues?

1. Task Scheduling

In multitasking operating systems, queues are commonly used for task scheduling. Each task or process is enqueued into a system-wide queue and then executed based on its position in the queue. This ensures fairness and prevents resource starvation for individual tasks.

2. Print Spooling

In computer printing, queues are used for print spooling. When multiple users send print requests simultaneously, these requests are stored in a queue until they can be processed by the printer. This allows for efficient handling of print jobs without blocking other system operations.

3. Breadth-First Search (BFS)

BFS is a graph traversal algorithm that explores all vertices of a graph in breadth-first order. Queues are used to keep track of the vertices to visit, ensuring that each level of the graph is visited before moving deeper. This approach guarantees that the shortest path between two vertices can be found.

4. Implementing Buffers

Queues are commonly used to implement buffers or temporary storage areas in computer systems. For example, when data is read from a file or network, it is often stored in a queue-like structure before being processed further. This allows for efficient handling of data streams and prevents data loss.

5. Message Passing

In inter-process communication, queues are used for message passing between different processes or threads. Messages are enqueued by the sender process and dequeued by the receiver process, ensuring proper synchronization and communication between them.


Queues are an indispensable tool in computer science and programming due to their simplicity and efficiency in managing data. They provide an ordered way to handle tasks, process data streams, traverse graphs, and facilitate inter-process communication. By understanding the characteristics and use cases of queues, you can leverage their power to solve complex problems efficiently.

So next time you encounter a situation where you need to prioritize tasks or manage data streams systematically, consider using a queue as your go-to data structure!

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