# Which Data Structure Is Implemented for Uniform Cost Search?

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Larry Thompson

Which Data Structure Is Implemented for Uniform Cost Search?

Uniform Cost Search (UCS) is a popular search algorithm used in artificial intelligence to find the lowest-cost path between two nodes in a graph. It is an extension of Dijkstra’s algorithm, which is used to find the shortest path in a weighted graph. While Dijkstra’s algorithm uses a priority queue, UCS implements a different data structure to achieve optimal results.

## Priority Queue

To understand the data structure used for UCS, let’s first discuss priority queues. A priority queue is an abstract data type that stores elements with associated priorities.

The element with the highest priority is always at the front and can be accessed or removed first. Priority queues are commonly implemented using heaps, specifically binary heaps or Fibonacci heaps.

• Binary Heap: A binary heap is a complete binary tree where each node satisfies the heap property. In a min-heap, each parent node has a smaller value than its children, while in a max-heap, it has a larger value.

Binary heaps provide efficient insertion and removal of elements with logarithmic time complexity.

• Fibonacci Heap: A Fibonacci heap is an advanced data structure that provides even better time complexity for certain operations compared to binary heaps. It consists of multiple trees with specific properties and allows constant amortized time for key operations like insertion, deletion, and extraction of minimum elements.

## The Data Structure for UCS

In UCS, the goal is to find the lowest-cost path from the start node to the goal node by expanding nodes incrementally based on their costs. To achieve this efficiently, UCS uses a modified version of a priority queue called a cost-based priority queue. This data structure stores nodes along with their associated costs and orders them based on their cumulative costs from the start node.

The cost-based priority queue is implemented using a binary heap or a Fibonacci heap, similar to regular priority queues. However, in UCS, the comparison key for ordering nodes is not their individual priorities but rather their cumulative costs. The node with the lowest cumulative cost is always at the front of the queue.

## Advantages of Cost-Based Priority Queue

The use of a cost-based priority queue in UCS offers several advantages:

• Optimality: By always expanding the node with the lowest cumulative cost, UCS guarantees finding the lowest-cost path from the start to the goal node.
• Efficiency: The cost-based priority queue ensures that nodes are expanded in an order that minimizes unnecessary exploration and focuses on promising paths first. This leads to improved efficiency and faster convergence towards the optimal solution.

## Conclusion

In uniform cost search, a modified version of a priority queue known as a cost-based priority queue is implemented. This data structure orders nodes based on their cumulative costs from the start node rather than individual priorities.

By using this approach, UCS achieves optimality and efficiency in finding the lowest-cost path. Implementing UCS with a cost-based priority queue can be done using either a binary heap or a Fibonacci heap.

Understanding the underlying data structure used in uniform cost search helps in optimizing search algorithms and choosing appropriate implementations based on specific requirements.