What Type of Data Structure Is a Stack?


Larry Thompson

A stack is a type of data structure that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. It is a linear data structure that allows elements to be inserted and removed only from one end called the top. In other words, the last element added to the stack is the first one to be removed.

Stack Operations

A stack supports two main operations:

  • Push: This operation adds an element to the top of the stack.
  • Pop: This operation removes and returns the element from the top of the stack.

In addition to these basic operations, a stack usually provides a way to check if it is empty, retrieve the topmost element without removing it (often called peek), and clear all its elements.

Visualizing a Stack

To better understand how a stack works, let’s imagine a real-life scenario of stacking plates. Imagine you have a pile of plates and you want to add more.

You would typically add new plates on top of the existing pile, making it taller. When you need to remove a plate, you would take it from the top of the pile rather than from below. This behavior follows the LIFO principle and is exactly how a stack works in programming.

The Stack Data Structure in Memory

In memory, a stack can be visualized as a vertical arrangement of elements. Each element occupies some space and contains both its value and an address pointer pointing to the next element below it.

Stack Applications

The simplicity and efficiency of stacks make them suitable for various applications such as:

  • Function Call Stack: Stacks are used to manage function calls in programming languages. When a function is called, its return address and local variables are pushed onto the stack.

    When the function returns, they are popped off the stack.

  • Expression Evaluation: Stacks can be used to evaluate expressions by converting them into postfix or prefix notations and then evaluating them using a stack.
  • Undo/Redo Operations: Many applications use stacks to implement undo and redo functionality. Each operation is pushed onto a stack, allowing users to reverse or redo their actions.
  • Browser History: The back button in web browsers typically uses a stack data structure to keep track of previously visited pages.


A stack is a versatile data structure that follows the LIFO principle, making it suitable for various applications in programming. By understanding how stacks work and applying them appropriately, you can improve the efficiency and organization of your code.

Now that you have a clear understanding of what type of data structure a stack is, you can start incorporating it into your projects and leverage its power for solving complex problems efficiently.

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