What Is Vector3 in Scripting?


Angela Bailey

What Is Vector3 in Scripting?

In scripting, a Vector3 is a common data type used to represent a three-dimensional vector. It is widely used in various programming languages and game development frameworks. Understanding how to work with Vector3 is essential for creating interactive and dynamic 3D environments.

Properties of Vector3

A Vector3 typically consists of three components: x, y, and z. These components represent the magnitude or position of a point in 3D space. Here’s an example:

Vector3 position = new Vector3(1, 2, 3);

In this example, the position vector has an x-component of 1, y-component of 2, and z-component of 3.

Common Operations on Vector3

Working with Vector3 involves performing various operations such as addition, subtraction, scaling, normalization, dot product, and cross product. Let’s explore some of these operations:

Addition and Subtraction

To add or subtract two vectors, you simply perform the operation component-wise. For example:

Vector3 a = new Vector3(2, 4, 6);
Vector3 b = new Vector3(1, 1, 1);

Vector3 sum = a + b;
Vector3 difference = a - b;

The resulting vectors will have their components added or subtracted individually.


To scale a vector by a scalar value (a single numeric value), you multiply each component by that value. For instance:

Vector3 original = new Vector3(2, 3, 4);
float scale = 2;

Vector3 scaled = original * scale;

The resulting vector scaled will have each component of the original vector multiplied by 2.


Normalization is the process of converting a vector into a unit vector (a vector with a magnitude of 1). To normalize a Vector3, you divide each component by its magnitude. Here’s an example:

Vector3 direction = new Vector3(1, 2, 2);
Vector3 normalizedDirection = direction.normalized;

The resulting normalizedDirection vector will have the same direction as the original direction, but its magnitude will be equal to 1.

Dot Product and Cross Product

The dot product and cross product are two common operations used in vector mathematics.

  • The dot product of two vectors returns a scalar value representing the cosine of the angle between them. It is calculated by multiplying corresponding components and summing them up.

    The dot product can be used to determine if two vectors are perpendicular or parallel.

  • The cross product of two vectors returns another vector that is perpendicular to both input vectors. It is calculated using a specific formula involving the components of the input vectors.


In summary, understanding and working with Vector3 in scripting is crucial for creating interactive and dynamic 3D environments. By utilizing various operations like addition, subtraction, scaling, normalization, dot product, and cross product, you can manipulate vectors to create complex behaviors and interactions within your scripts.

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