What Is Tree in Data Structure Give Its Properties?


Larry Thompson

A tree is a widely used data structure in computer science that represents hierarchical relationships. It is composed of nodes connected by edges, where each node can have zero or more child nodes. The topmost node in a tree is called the root, and the nodes at the bottom with no children are called leaf nodes.

Properties of a Tree:

1. Hierarchical Structure:

A tree follows a hierarchical structure, meaning that each node (except for the root) has exactly one parent node and zero or more child nodes. This property allows for easy representation of relationships between different elements.

2. Root Node:

The root node is the topmost node in a tree and serves as the entry point to access all other nodes in the tree. It does not have a parent node but can have one or more child nodes.

3. Child Nodes:

A child node is any node directly connected to another node when moving away from the root. Each parent node can have multiple child nodes, but each child node has only one parent.

4. Leaf Nodes:

Leaf nodes are the nodes at the bottom of a tree that do not have any children. They represent endpoints in a hierarchy and cannot have any further descendants.

5. Depth:

The depth of a tree refers to the length of the longest path from the root to any leaf node. In other words, it indicates how many levels exist between the root and its deepest leaf.

6. Height:

The height of a tree represents the maximum depth among all its leaf nodes. It indicates how tall or deep a tree is from its lowest leaf to its root.

Example of a Tree:

Let’s consider an example of a tree representing the hierarchy of a company:

        /   \
      CTO   CFO
     /  \     \
  Manager  Engineer

In this example, the CEO is the root node, while CTO and CFO are its child nodes. The CTO further has two child nodes: Manager and Engineer. The CFO has only one child node: Engineer.

This tree represents the hierarchical relationship within the company, where employees report to their respective managers or supervisors.


A tree is a powerful data structure that allows us to represent hierarchical relationships in a visually organized manner. Its properties, such as the root node, child nodes, leaf nodes, depth, and height, make it suitable for various applications in computer science and beyond.

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