What Is Tree Data Structure and Its Types?


Angela Bailey

A tree data structure is a widely used data structure in computer science that represents a hierarchical structure. It consists of nodes connected by edges, resembling a tree-like structure. Each node in the tree can have zero or more child nodes, except for the root node which has no parent.

Types of Tree Data Structure:

There are several types of tree data structures, each with its own unique characteristics and applications:

1. Binary Tree:

A binary tree is a type of tree in which each node has at most two child nodes, referred to as the left child and the right child.

The left child node comes before the right child node. Binary trees are commonly used in many algorithms and data structures such as binary search trees and heaps.

2. Binary Search Tree:

A binary search tree (BST) is a type of binary tree with an additional property: for any given node, the value of every node in its left subtree is less than its value, and the value of every node in its right subtree is greater than its value. This property allows for efficient searching, inserting, and deleting elements in logarithmic time complexity.

3. AVL Tree:

An AVL (Adelson-Velsky Landis) tree is a self-balancing binary search tree where the heights of two subtrees of any node differ by at most one. It ensures that the height of the tree remains O(log n), resulting in efficient operations such as searching, inserting, and deleting elements with a time complexity of O(log n).

4. B-Tree:

A B-tree is a self-balancing search tree designed to efficiently handle large amounts of data on disk or other secondary storage devices.

It allows for efficient searching, inserting, and deleting elements in logarithmic time complexity. B-trees are commonly used in file systems and databases.

5. Trie:

A trie, also known as a prefix tree, is an ordered tree data structure that stores keys (usually strings) associated with values.

The nodes of the trie represent characters, and each path from the root to a leaf node represents a unique key. Tries are often used for efficient string searching and prefix matching.


Trees are versatile data structures that find applications in various domains, including computer science, data storage, and information retrieval. Understanding the different types of tree data structures can help you choose the most suitable one for your specific needs.

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