What Is Tree and Its Types in Data Structure PDF?


Scott Campbell

A tree is a widely used data structure in computer science that resembles a hierarchical structure. It consists of nodes connected by edges, where each node can have zero or more child nodes. The topmost node of a tree is called the root node.

Types of Trees

1. Binary Tree:

A binary tree is a type of tree in which each node has at most two child nodes: left and right.

The left child node is smaller than the parent node, while the right child node is greater. This property makes binary trees efficient for searching, sorting, and other operations.

2. AVL Tree:

An AVL (Adelson-Velsky and Landis) tree is a self-balancing binary search tree.

It maintains the height balance property, ensuring that the difference in height between any two subtrees of a node is at most 1. This balance factor allows for faster search and insertion operations.

3. B-Tree:

A B-tree is a self-balancing search tree that can have more than two children per node.

It is designed to reduce disk I/O operations by maximizing the number of keys per internal node, resulting in fewer levels in the tree. B-trees are commonly used in databases and file systems.

4. Red-Black Tree:

A red-black tree is another type of self-balancing binary search tree that guarantees logarithmic time complexity for searching, insertion, and deletion operations. It ensures that no path from the root to any leaf node has more than twice as many black nodes as any other path.

Benefits of Trees

  • Hierarchical Structure: Trees provide a hierarchical organization of data, making it easier to represent relationships between entities.
  • Efficient Operations: Different types of trees offer efficient operations like searching, sorting, insertion, and deletion.
  • Self-Balancing: Some tree types automatically balance themselves, ensuring optimal performance even with dynamic data.
  • File Organization: B-trees are widely used for file organization in databases and file systems due to their efficient disk access patterns.


Trees are versatile data structures that find applications in various domains of computer science. Understanding their types and properties can greatly enhance your ability to solve complex problems efficiently. Whether you need fast searching algorithms or hierarchical organization of data, trees offer an elegant solution.

So start exploring the world of trees and take advantage of their power in your programming endeavors!

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