What Is Tree and Its Type in Data Structure?


Larry Thompson

When it comes to data structures, one of the most fundamental and widely used concepts is a tree. In this article, we will explore what a tree is and its various types. Let’s dive in!

Understanding Trees

A tree is a hierarchical structure that consists of nodes connected by edges. It resembles a real-life tree with branches and leaves, where the topmost node is known as the root. Each node can have zero or more child nodes, except for the leaf nodes which have no children.

Trees are commonly used to represent relationships between data elements, organize data in a hierarchical manner, and efficiently perform operations like searching, insertion, and deletion.

Types of Trees

1. Binary Tree

A binary tree is a type of tree where each node has at most two children: left child and right child. The left child is smaller than or equal to the parent node, while the right child is greater than the parent node. Binary trees are extensively used in search algorithms like binary search.

2. AVL Tree

An AVL (Adelson-Velsky Landis) tree is a self-balancing binary search tree. It ensures that the difference in height between its left and right subtrees (balance factor) does not exceed 1. Whenever an insertion or deletion operation causes an imbalance, rotation operations are performed to maintain balance.

3. B-Tree

A B-tree is a self-balancing search tree designed to efficiently handle large amounts of data on disk or secondary storage devices. It allows for efficient searching, insertion, and deletion operations by maintaining multiple keys per node and ensuring balanced height.

4. Red-Black Tree

A red-black tree is another type of self-balancing binary search tree. It ensures that the tree remains balanced by performing color changes and rotations when necessary. The color of each node is either red or black, and it follows certain rules to maintain balance.

5. Trie

A trie, also known as a prefix tree, is a specialized tree used for efficient retrieval of strings based on their prefixes. It is commonly used in applications like spell checkers and IP routing tables.


Trees are an essential part of data structures, offering a hierarchical and organized way to store and retrieve data efficiently. Understanding the different types of trees allows us to choose the most suitable one for various applications.

In this article, we explored some common types of trees like binary trees, AVL trees, B-trees, red-black trees, and tries. Each type has its own unique properties and use cases.

Now that you have a solid understanding of trees and their types in data structure, you can leverage this knowledge to solve complex problems efficiently.

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