What Is the Need of Object-Oriented Programming Comment With Suitable Real-World Examples?


Scott Campbell

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that is widely used in modern software development. It focuses on the concept of objects, which are instances of classes that encapsulate data and behavior.

OOP offers numerous benefits and is essential for building complex software systems. In this article, we will explore the need for object-oriented programming with suitable real-world examples.

The Need for Object-Oriented Programming

1. Encapsulation:

One of the key advantages of OOP is encapsulation, which allows data and methods to be bundled together within an object.

This helps in organizing code and prevents access to internal data from outside the object’s boundaries. Let’s consider an example of a bank account:

class BankAccount {
    private double balance;
    public void deposit(double amount) {
        balance += amount;
    public void withdraw(double amount) {
        if (amount <= balance) {
            balance -= amount;
        } else {
            System.out.println("Insufficient funds");
    public double getBalance() {
        return balance;

In this example, the balance variable is encapsulated within the BankAccount class, and it can only be accessed through the defined methods deposit(), withdraw(), and getBalance(). This ensures that the account balance cannot be directly modified without going through proper procedures.

2. Inheritance:

OOP allows for inheritance, where new classes can inherit properties and behavior from existing classes.

This promotes code reuse and enables developers to create specialized classes based on more general ones. Consider the following example:

class Vehicle {
    protected String brand;
    public void honk() {
        System.println("Honk honk!");

class Car extends Vehicle {
    private int numOfDoors;
    public Car(String brand, int numOfDoors) {
        this.brand = brand;
        this.numOfDoors = numOfDoors;
    public void drive() {
        System.println("Driving a " + brand + " car with " + numOfDoors + " doors.");

In this example, the Car class inherits the brand property and the honk() method from the Vehicle class. It also adds its own property numOfDoors and method drive(). This way, we can create multiple types of vehicles without duplicating common properties and behavior.

3. Polymorphism:

OOP supports polymorphism, which allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass.

This promotes flexibility and modularity in code by enabling methods to accept various object types. Let's consider an example using shapes:

abstract class Shape {
    abstract double getArea();

class Rectangle extends Shape {
    private double width;
    private double height;
    public Rectangle(double width, double height) {
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
    public double getArea() {
        return width * height;

class Circle extends Shape {
    private double radius;
    public Circle(double radius) {
        this.radius = radius;
    public double getArea() {
        return Math.PI * radius * radius;

In this example, both Rectangle and Circle classes inherit the abstract getArea() method from the Shape class. By treating objects of different shape classes as instances of the common superclass, we can write methods that work with any shape without knowing its specific type.


OOP provides a powerful and flexible approach to software development. Encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism are fundamental concepts that help in creating modular, reusable, and maintainable code. By utilizing these features appropriately, developers can build robust applications that mimic real-world scenarios more effectively.

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