What Is the Difference Between Structured and Object Oriented Programming?
Programming is a vast field with various methodologies and paradigms. Two commonly used programming paradigms are structured programming and object-oriented programming (OOP). While both approaches aim to solve problems through code, they differ significantly in their principles, organization, and implementation.
Structured programming is a procedural approach to writing code. It involves breaking down a complex problem into smaller, manageable tasks or functions.
These functions are then combined to form the complete program. The key idea behind structured programming is to use logical structures such as sequences, conditionals, and loops to control the flow of execution.
In structured programming, the emphasis is on procedural abstraction. Functions are defined to perform specific tasks and can be reused throughout the program.
This promotes code reusability and modularity. Additionally, structured programming advocates for using a top-down design approach where the program’s main function calls other functions as needed.
Object-oriented programming (OOP) takes a different approach compared to structured programming. OOP revolves around the concept of objects, which encapsulate both data and behavior. An object represents a real-world entity or an abstract concept.
In OOP, data is stored within objects as attributes or properties. These attributes define the state of an object. Behaviors or operations that an object can perform are defined as methods or functions within the object’s class.
One of the key principles of OOP is inheritance, which allows objects to inherit properties and behaviors from parent classes. This promotes code reuse and enables hierarchical organization of classes.
Another essential concept in OOP is polymorphism, which allows objects of different classes to be treated interchangeably if they share common methods or interfaces.
Now that we understand the basics of both paradigms, let’s explore their differences:
1. Organization: Structured programming organizes code around functions, while OOP organizes code around objects and classes.
2. Data Abstraction: Structured programming focuses on procedural abstraction, where functions operate on data. In contrast, OOP emphasizes data abstraction through encapsulation within objects.
3. Code Reusability: Both paradigms promote code reusability, but OOP achieves it through inheritance and polymorphism, allowing for more modular and extensible code.
4. Complexity Management: Structured programming manages complexity by dividing problems into smaller functions. On the other hand, OOP manages complexity by modeling real-world entities or abstract concepts using objects.
5. Maintenance: OOP tends to be more maintainable as changes in one part of the program do not affect unrelated parts due to encapsulation and modularity.
6. Code Understandability: Structured programming offers a straightforward linear flow of execution, making it easier to understand for beginners. However, OOP may require a deeper understanding of class hierarchies and relationships between objects.
In conclusion, structured programming is based on procedural abstraction and uses logical structures to control program flow. On the other hand, object-oriented programming revolves around objects that encapsulate data and behavior and promotes code reusability through inheritance and polymorphism.
Both paradigms have their strengths and weaknesses, so choosing the right one depends on the specific requirements of the problem at hand.