What Is the Difference Between Object Oriented Programming and Structured Programming?
When it comes to programming paradigms, two of the most widely used approaches are object-oriented programming (OOP) and structured programming. While both aim to solve problems in software development, they differ in their fundamental principles and methodologies.
Structured programming is a procedural programming paradigm that focuses on breaking down a program into smaller, more manageable structures called functions or procedures. These functions execute sequentially, with control flow being managed by control structures like loops and conditionals.
- Procedural: In structured programming, programs are built around procedures or routines that perform specific tasks. These procedures can be executed in a linear manner, with one instruction following another.
- Top-down approach: The top-down approach involves dividing the program into smaller modules and then solving each module separately.
This enables better organization and easier debugging of code.
- Inherent simplicity: Structured programming focuses on simplicity and clarity of code. It promotes the use of control structures like if-else statements and loops to ensure efficient execution.
Object-oriented programming (OOP), on the other hand, is a programming paradigm that revolves around objects. An object is an instance of a class, which encapsulates both data (attributes) and behavior (methods). OOP aims to model real-world entities as objects that interact with each other.
- Objects and classes: In OOP, programs are built around classes, which serve as blueprints for creating objects. Each object has its own set of attributes and behaviors defined by the class.
- Encapsulation and data hiding: OOP encourages encapsulation, which means bundling data and related methods together to hide internal implementation details.
This helps in achieving data security and code reusability.
- Inheritance and polymorphism: Inheritance allows classes to inherit properties and behaviors from other classes, promoting code reuse. Polymorphism enables objects of different classes to be treated as instances of a common superclass, providing flexibility in program design.
Differences Between Structured Programming and Object-Oriented Programming:
Now that we have discussed the key concepts of both paradigms, let’s highlight the main differences between structured programming and object-oriented programming:
- Approach: Structured programming follows a procedural approach, where programs are divided into functions or procedures. Object-oriented programming takes an object-centric approach, focusing on creating objects that interact with each other.
- Data organization: Structured programming organizes data using simple variables or arrays.
Object-oriented programming organizes data using objects that encapsulate both data (attributes) and behavior (methods).
- Code reusability: In structured programming, code reuse is limited to functions or procedures. In object-oriented programming, code reuse is facilitated through inheritance, where subclasses inherit properties and behaviors from parent classes.
- Data hiding and encapsulation: Structured programming does not emphasize data hiding or encapsulation. Object-oriented programming promotes these concepts by bundling related data and methods within an object.
In conclusion, while both structured programming and object-oriented programming aim to solve problems in software development, they differ in their approach, data organization, code reusability, and emphasis on concepts like data hiding and encapsulation. Choosing the right programming paradigm depends on the specific requirements of the project and the preferences of the developer.