What Is the Difference Between an Internal DNS Server From a Public?


Heather Bennett

What Is the Difference Between an Internal DNS Server From a Public?

When it comes to DNS (Domain Name System), there are two main types of servers: internal DNS servers and public DNS servers. Each serves a different purpose and is used in different scenarios. In this article, we will explore the key differences between these two types of DNS servers.

Internal DNS Server

An internal DNS server, also known as a private or local DNS server, is used within an organization or a private network. It is responsible for resolving domain names to IP addresses for devices within the network. This allows users within the network to access websites, services, and resources using easy-to-remember domain names instead of complicated IP addresses.

There are several advantages to using an internal DNS server:

  • Control: With an internal DNS server, the organization has complete control over the domain name resolution process. They can customize and manage their own domain names and subdomains.
  • Security: Internal DNS servers can be configured with security features like firewalls and access controls to protect sensitive information and prevent unauthorized access.
  • Performance: By caching frequently accessed domain name resolutions, an internal DNS server can provide faster response times, improving overall network performance.

Public DNS Server

A public DNS server, on the other hand, is accessible by anyone on the internet. It is maintained by organizations or internet service providers (ISPs) and is used by individuals or businesses who do not have their own internal DNS infrastructure.

The primary function of a public DNS server is to resolve domain names for internet users from anywhere in the world. When you type a website address into your browser, your computer queries a public DNS server to obtain the corresponding IP address and establish a connection.

Here are some key characteristics of public DNS servers:

  • Global Availability: Public DNS servers are spread across different locations worldwide to ensure reliable access and low latency for users from anywhere.
  • Security: Public DNS servers prioritize security and implement measures like DNSSEC (DNS Security Extensions) to protect against DNS spoofing and other malicious activities.
  • Anonymity: Public DNS servers do not typically log user activity, providing a certain degree of privacy and anonymity.

Differences Between Internal and Public DNS Servers

The main differences between an internal DNS server and a public DNS server can be summarized as follows:

  • Purpose: Internal DNS servers are used for resolving domain names within a private network, while public DNS servers are used for resolving domain names on the internet.
  • Accessibility: Internal DNS servers are only accessible by devices within the private network, whereas public DNS servers are accessible by anyone on the internet.
  • Control: Organizations have complete control over their internal DNS server, allowing them to customize domain names and manage their own network. With public DNS servers, control is in the hands of the organization or ISP maintaining the server.
  • Security Features: Internal DNS servers can be configured with additional security features specific to the organization’s needs. Public DNS servers prioritize security at a global level but do not offer customization options for individual organizations.

In conclusion, internal and public DNS servers serve different purposes in different environments. An internal DNS server provides control, security, and performance benefits within a private network, while a public DNS server offers global accessibility and security for internet users. Understanding these differences is crucial for organizations and individuals to make informed decisions about their DNS infrastructure.

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