What Is TEXT Data Type in Database?


Scott Campbell

The TEXT data type in a database is used to store large amounts of text. It is commonly used for storing long paragraphs, articles, or any other type of text that exceeds the character limits of other data types such as VARCHAR or CHAR.

When using the TEXT data type, you have the advantage of being able to store a large amount of data without worrying about exceeding any character limits. However, it’s important to note that the TEXT data type is not suitable for all scenarios and has some limitations.

Limits and considerations:

  • Size Limit: The maximum storage size for a TEXT column varies depending on the database system you are using. For example, in MySQL, it can store up to 65,535 bytes (64 KB), while in PostgreSQL, it can store up to 1 GB.
  • No Sorting or Indexing: Unlike other data types such as integers or strings, you cannot perform sorting or indexing operations directly on a TEXT column.

    If you need to sort or search based on specific criteria within the text, you may need to use advanced techniques like full-text search.

  • Inefficient for Small Text: If you only need to store small amounts of text, using the VARCHAR or CHAR data types would be more efficient. The TEXT data type is designed for larger chunks of text and may have some overhead when used for smaller strings.
  • Data Retrieval:

    Retrieving data from a TEXT column can impact performance, especially when dealing with large amounts of text. It’s important to optimize your database queries and use appropriate indexes to improve retrieval speed.


Let’s consider an example where we have a table called “articles” with a TEXT column named “content” that stores the main content of an article:

CREATE TABLE articles (
  title VARCHAR(255),
  content TEXT

You can then insert data into the “content” column using SQL:

INSERT INTO articles (id, title, content)
VALUES (1, 'Introduction to HTML', 'HTML stands for HyperText Markup Language and is the standard markup language for creating web pages.');

To retrieve the data from the “content” column, you can use a SELECT statement:

SELECT content FROM articles WHERE id = 1;

This will return the content of the article with an ID of 1.


The TEXT data type in a database is a powerful tool for storing large amounts of text efficiently. However, it’s important to consider its limitations and use it appropriately based on your specific requirements. By understanding these considerations, you can make informed decisions when designing and working with databases that involve storing extensive textual information.

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