What Is Table Data Type in SQL Server?


Scott Campbell

What Is Table Data Type in SQL Server?

Tables are fundamental components of databases that store and organize data in a structured manner. In SQL Server, a table data type allows you to define a variable that can hold an entire table structure. This powerful feature provides flexibility and efficiency when dealing with complex data structures.

Defining a Table Data Type

To define a table data type in SQL Server, you need to use the CREATE TYPE statement. This statement enables you to create a user-defined data type based on an existing table structure.

The syntax for creating a table data type is as follows:

CREATE TYPE [schema_name.]type_name
    column_name1 data_type,
    column_name2 data_type,

In the above syntax:

  • schema_name: (optional) The name of the schema where the table data type will be created.
  • type_name: The name of the table data type.
  • column_name1, column_name2, .: The names of the columns in the table along with their respective data types.


CREATE TYPE dbo.EmployeeType
    EmployeeID INT,
    FirstName VARCHAR(50),
    LastName VARCHAR(50),
    DepartmentID INT

In this example, we create a table data type called EmployeeType. It consists of four columns: EmployeeID, FirstName, LastName, and DepartmentID. The data types for the columns are INT and VARCHAR, representing integer and string data respectively.

Using Table Data Types

Once you have defined a table data type, you can use it as a parameter in stored procedures or functions. This allows you to pass an entire table as an argument, simplifying data manipulation operations.

To use a table data type, you need to declare a variable of that type. The syntax for declaring a variable of a table data type is similar to declaring other variables:

DECLARE @variable_name type_name

For example, to declare a variable of the EmployeeType table data type:

DECLARE @employees dbo.EmployeeType

You can then insert, update, or delete records in the @employees variable using regular SQL statements.

INSERT INTO @employees (EmployeeID, FirstName, LastName, DepartmentID)
VALUES (1, 'John', 'Doe', 100),
       (2, 'Jane', 'Smith', 200)
SELECT * FROM @employees

In this example, we insert two records into the @employees variable using the INSERT INTO statement. Then we retrieve all records from the variable using the SELECT statement.

Benefits of Using Table Data Types

The use of table data types provides several benefits:

  • Simplicity and readability: By encapsulating complex structures within a single variable, code becomes more concise and easier to understand.
  • Data integrity: Table data types help enforce data integrity by defining the structure and data types of the table. This reduces the risk of errors or inconsistencies.
  • Efficiency: When passing large amounts of data, using a table data type is more efficient than passing individual values or using temporary tables.

Overall, table data types in SQL Server are a powerful tool for handling complex data structures efficiently and effectively.

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