What Is Struct Data Type?


Scott Campbell

A struct data type, short for structure, is a composite data type in programming that allows you to group different variables together under one name. It is used to represent a collection of related data items, which can be of different types.

Creating a Struct

To create a struct in most programming languages, you need to define its structure and the variables it will contain. Let’s say we want to create a struct for representing a person’s information:

struct Person {
  string name;
  int age;
  string city;

In this example, we have defined a struct called “Person” that contains three variables: “name”, “age”, and “city”. Each variable has its own data type.

Using Structs

Once you have defined the struct, you can create instances of it and assign values to its variables. Here’s an example:

Person person1;
person1.name = "John Doe";
person1.age = 25;
person1.city = "New York";

In this example, we have created an instance of the Person struct called person1. We then assign values to its variables using the dot notation.

Accessing Struct Variables

To access the variables within a struct, you use the dot notation followed by the variable name. Here’s an example:

cout<< person1.name << endl;
cout<< person1.age << endl;
cout<< person1.city << endl;

The above code will print the values of the variables “name”, “age”, and “city” in the struct person1.

Benefits of Using Structs

Structs provide several benefits:

  • Organization: Structs allow you to organize related data together, making your code more readable and maintainable.
  • Data Integrity: By grouping related variables together, structs help ensure that data is kept in a consistent state.
  • Passing by Value: Structs are often passed by value, meaning a copy of the struct is made when it is passed to a function. This can be useful in certain scenarios where you want to manipulate a copy of the original data without modifying it directly.

Example Usage: Point Structure

A common example of using structs is to represent a point in a 2D coordinate system. Here’s an example:

struct Point {
  int x;
  int y;

Point p1;
p1.x = 5;
p1.y = 10;

cout<< "Coordinates: (" << p1.x << ", " << p1.y << ")" << endl;

In this example, we have created a struct called Point with variables x and y representing the coordinates. We then create an instance of the Point struct called p1 and assign values to its variables. Finally, we print the coordinates using the cout statement.


Structs are a powerful tool in programming for organizing and managing related data. They allow you to group variables together under one name, providing a clean and structured way to represent complex data structures.

By using struct data types, you can enhance the readability and maintainability of your code, making it easier to work with and understand.

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