What Is Static and Dynamic Array in Data Structure?


Scott Campbell

In the field of data structures, arrays play a crucial role in organizing and storing data. There are two types of arrays that you should be familiar with: static arrays and dynamic arrays.

Static Arrays


A static array is a type of array with a fixed size that cannot be changed after it is declared. The size of a static array is determined at compile time and remains constant throughout the program’s execution.


To declare a static array, you specify the data type of its elements followed by the array name and its size in square brackets. For example:

int numbers[5];

Accessing Elements:

You can access individual elements of a static array using their index values. The index starts from 0 for the first element and increments by 1 for each subsequent element. For example, to access the third element of the numbers array mentioned above, you would use numbers[2].


  • Simplicity: Static arrays are simple to use and understand.
  • Faster Access: Accessing elements in a static array is faster compared to other data structures like linked lists.
  • No Memory Waste: Static arrays do not require additional memory allocation or deallocation operations.


  • No Size Flexibility: The size of a static array is fixed, which can lead to memory wastage if it is larger than necessary or insufficient to accommodate all the required elements.
  • Compiler Limitations: Some compilers impose a limit on the maximum size of static arrays.

Dynamic Arrays

A dynamic array is an array whose size can be changed during runtime. It is also known as a resizable array or a dynamically-sized array.

In many programming languages, dynamic arrays are implemented using built-in data structures like ArrayList in Java or List in Python. These data structures provide methods to easily add or remove elements from the array without worrying about memory allocation or deallocation.

  • Size Flexibility: Dynamic arrays can grow or shrink as needed, allowing efficient memory utilization.
  • No Compiler Limitations: The size of dynamic arrays is not limited by compiler constraints.
  • Slightly Slower Access: Accessing elements in a dynamic array requires an extra level of indirection, making it slightly slower than accessing elements in a static array.
  • Memory Overhead: Dynamic arrays require additional memory to store metadata about the size and capacity of the array.

In Conclusion

In summary, static arrays have a fixed size determined at compile time and cannot be resized during runtime. They are simple and fast but lack flexibility.

On the other hand, dynamic arrays offer size flexibility but have slightly slower access times and additional memory overhead. The choice between static and dynamic arrays depends on the specific requirements of your program.

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