In the field of computer science, a stack is a fundamental data structure that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. It is a collection of elements where the addition and removal of items happen from only one end, known as the top.

## Properties of a Stack:

**Order:** The order in which elements are added to a stack is preserved.
**Insertion:** Elements can only be inserted or removed from the top of the stack.
**Access:** Only the topmost element of the stack can be accessed directly.

## Operations on a Stack:

A stack supports two primary operations:

__Push:__ The push operation adds an element to the top of the stack. When an item is pushed onto a stack, it becomes the new top element.
__Pop:__ The pop operation removes and returns the topmost element from the stack. After popping an item, the next item below it becomes the new top element.

### An Example Scenario:

To understand stacks better, let’s consider a real-life scenario – stacking books on a table. Each time you place a book on top, it becomes visible and accessible. Similarly, when you remove a book from the stack, you can only access and remove the one on top.

### Common Applications of Stacks in Computer Science:

The LIFO nature of stacks makes them useful in various algorithms and programming scenarios such as:

**Evaluating Expressions:** Stacks can be used to evaluate and solve arithmetic expressions, especially those involving parentheses.
**Function Call Stack:** Stacks are crucial in managing function calls and maintaining the execution context of recursive functions.
**Undo/Redo Operations:** Stacks are often used to implement undo and redo functionality in applications.
**Backtracking:** Algorithms that involve backtracking often use stacks to store and retrieve the state of the search space.

## Implementing a Stack:

A stack can be implemented using arrays or linked lists. Arrays offer constant-time access but have a fixed size, while linked lists provide dynamic size but require additional memory for pointers.

### In Summary:

A stack is a data structure that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. It supports two primary operations: push and pop. Stacks find applications in various scenarios such as evaluating expressions, managing function calls, implementing undo/redo operations, and facilitating backtracking algorithms.

To learn more about stacks and their implementations in different programming languages, check out our related tutorials!

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A stack is a fundamental data structure in computer science. It is an abstract data type that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. In simple terms, this means that the last element added to the stack is the first one to be removed.