What Is Round Robin in Data Structure?


Scott Campbell

What Is Round Robin in Data Structure?

Round Robin is a popular scheduling algorithm used in operating systems and computer networks. It is a preemptive algorithm that treats all processes equally and allocates them an equal amount of time, known as a time quantum or time slice. The main goal of the Round Robin algorithm is to provide fair and balanced execution among multiple processes or tasks.

How does Round Robin work?

The Round Robin algorithm works by assigning each process a fixed time quantum. The processes are then executed in a cyclic manner, where each process gets to execute for a specified time period before being interrupted and moved to the back of the queue. This ensures that no single process monopolizes the CPU’s resources for an extended period.

Advantages of Round Robin

  • Fairness: Round Robin provides equal opportunities for all processes to execute, ensuring fairness.
  • Efficiency: It ensures that every process gets a chance to execute, preventing any process from being starved.
  • Low response time: Round Robin maintains a short response time by giving each process frequent access to the CPU.
  • Simplicity: The algorithm is easy to implement and understand due to its straightforward nature.

Disadvantages of Round Robin

  • Inefficient for long tasks: If there are long-running processes, they may need multiple rounds before completing their execution, causing delays for other processes.
  • Inefficient for short tasks: Short tasks may be preempted frequently, leading to unnecessary overheads due to context switching.

Pseudocode Example

Below is a simplified pseudocode example of the Round Robin algorithm:

Initialize queue to store processes
Initialize time quantum (slice)

while queue is not empty:
  process = dequeue a process from the front of the queue
  execute process for time quantum
  if process is not completed:
    enqueue the process back to the end of the queue


Round Robin is a widely used scheduling algorithm that provides fairness and balance in executing processes. Although it has some limitations, its simplicity and effectiveness make it popular in various operating systems and computer networks.

By allocating equal time slices to each process, Round Robin ensures that no process hogs the CPU for an extended period, leading to efficient resource utilization. Its preemptive nature allows for better responsiveness and prevents any single process from monopolizing system resources.

If you are looking for a scheduling algorithm that prioritizes fairness and ensures efficient execution across multiple processes or tasks, Round Robin can be an excellent choice.

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