What Is RMQ Data Structure?


Larry Thompson

What Is RMQ Data Structure?

RMQ stands for Range Minimum Query, which is a data structure that efficiently answers queries about the minimum value in a given range of elements. It is widely used in various applications, such as computational geometry, bioinformatics, and database systems.

Understanding RMQ

RMQ allows us to preprocess an array of numbers or other comparable elements to quickly find the minimum value within a specified range. This can be incredibly useful when dealing with large datasets or when frequent queries for minimum values need to be performed.

The RMQ data structure can be built using various algorithms, with the most common ones being:

  • Sparse Table
  • Segment Tree
  • Fischer-Heun Structure
  • Block Decomposition

Sparse Table

The Sparse Table algorithm is one of the simplest and most popular methods for constructing an RMQ data structure. It achieves a time complexity of O(n log n) for preprocessing and O(1) for answering queries.

The basic idea behind Sparse Table is to precompute all possible answers for range sizes that are powers of two. By storing these precomputed values in a two-dimensional table, we can efficiently answer any query by combining smaller ranges.

Segment Tree

The Segment Tree algorithm is another commonly used approach for building an RMQ data structure. It achieves a time complexity of O(n) for preprocessing and O(log n) for answering queries.

A Segment Tree is a binary tree where each node represents a range of elements. The root node spans the entire array, and each leaf node represents a single element. By storing the minimum value for each range, we can quickly traverse the tree to find the minimum value within a given range.

Benefits of RMQ

Using an RMQ data structure offers several benefits:

  • Efficiency: RMQ allows for fast query answering, even in large datasets, making it suitable for real-time applications.
  • Versatility: The flexibility of RMQ makes it applicable in various domains, allowing developers to solve complex problems efficiently.
  • Optimization: By preprocessing the data, we can optimize query performance and reduce redundant computations.

If you frequently encounter scenarios where you need to find the minimum value within a range of elements, implementing an RMQ data structure can significantly improve your application’s performance.


The RMQ data structure is a powerful tool for efficiently finding the minimum value within a specified range. With algorithms like Sparse Table and Segment Tree, we can preprocess the data and answer queries with excellent time complexity. Whether you’re working on computational geometry problems or optimizing database systems, understanding and implementing RMQ can greatly enhance your solution’s efficiency.

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