What Is Record in Data Structure?


Heather Bennett

In the field of data structures, a record refers to a logical data structure that allows us to store different types of related information together. It can be thought of as a container that holds multiple pieces of data, each representing a specific aspect of an entity or object.

Understanding Records

A record is also known as a structure or a tuple in some programming languages. It is used to represent real-world entities, such as a student, an employee, or a book.

A record consists of one or more fields, also known as attributes or members. Each field within a record stores a specific piece of data. For example, in a student record, the fields may include name, age, gender, and grade.

Defining Records

In most programming languages, records are defined using specific syntax. Let’s take an example of how to define a student record:

        struct StudentRecord {
            string name;
            int age;
            char gender;
            float grade;

In the above example, we have defined a structure called “StudentRecord” which contains four fields: “name” (of type string), “age” (of type int), “gender” (of type char), and “grade” (of type float).

Accessing Record Fields

To access the fields within a record, we use dot notation. Let’s assume we have an instance of the student record called “student1”. We can access its fields as follows:


By using dot notation, we can read or modify the values stored in each field of the record.

Benefits of Using Records

Records provide several benefits in data structure and programming:

  • Organization: Records allow us to organize related information together, making it easier to understand and manage.
  • Efficiency: By grouping related data, records reduce the complexity of managing multiple variables individually.
  • Clarity: Records make code more readable and self-explanatory by providing a clear structure for storing and accessing data.
  • Data Integrity: With records, we can ensure that all relevant information is stored and accessed together accurately.

In conclusion, a record is a valuable data structure that allows us to store and manipulate related information efficiently. By organizing data into logical units, records enhance code clarity and maintainability.


        // Define a record for a book
        struct BookRecord {
            string title;
            string author;
            int year;
            float price;
        // Create an instance of the book record
        BookRecord book1 = {"The Great Gatsby", "F. Scott Fitzgerald", 1925, 12.99};
        // Accessing fields of the book record
        cout << "Title: " << book1.title << endl;
        cout << "Author: " << book1.author << endl;
        cout << "Year: " << book1.year << endl;
        cout << "Price: $" << book1.price << endl;

By using records, we can simplify the representation and manipulation of complex data structures, ultimately leading to more efficient and maintainable code.

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