What Is Record in Data Structure With Example?


Heather Bennett

Records are essential components of data structures that allow us to store and organize different types of data together. In this article, we will explore what a record is and how it is used in the context of data structures, with some examples to illustrate its functionality.

What is a Record?

A record, also known as a struct or a tuple in some programming languages, is a composite data type that combines multiple values of different data types into a single unit. It represents a collection of related information that can be accessed and manipulated as a whole.

A record typically consists of fields or members, which are the individual pieces of data within the record. Each field has its own name and data type, allowing us to identify and work with specific pieces of information stored within the record.

For example, let’s consider a simple record representing a student:

struct Student {
    int rollNumber;
    string name;
    int age;

In this example, we have defined a record called “Student” with three fields: “rollNumber” (an integer), “name” (a string), and “age” (another integer). These fields store information about a student’s roll number, name, and age respectively.

Using Records in Data Structures

Records are commonly used in various data structures to represent complex entities or collections of related data. They provide an efficient way to organize and manage large amounts of information by grouping relevant data together.

For instance, let’s say we want to store information about employees in an organization. Instead of maintaining separate variables for each employee attribute (such as name, age, salary), we can create a record that encapsulates all these attributes:

struct Employee {
    string name;
    int age;
    double salary;

With this record, we can now create an array or a linked list of employees, allowing us to easily manipulate and access employee data in a structured manner.

Accessing Record Fields

To access the fields of a record, we use dot notation, specifying the name of the record followed by the field name. For example:

Student student1;
student1.rollNumber = 101;  // Assigning value to rollNumber field
student1.name = "John Doe";  // Assigning value to name field
student1.age = 20;  // Assigning value to age field

// Accessing and printing the values of fields
cout << "Roll Number: " << student1.rollNumber << endl;
cout << "Name: " << student1.name << endl;
cout << "Age: " << student1.age << endl;

The above code demonstrates how we can assign values to individual fields of a record and access them later using dot notation.

Advantages of Using Records

  • Organized Data: Records help in organizing related data into a single entity, making it easier to manage and maintain.
  • Data Abstraction: By encapsulating related data into records, we can abstract away unnecessary details and focus on higher-level operations.
  • Efficient Storage: Records provide an efficient way to store large amounts of information by grouping related data together.
  • Data Integrity: Using records ensures that all required information is present and makes it less prone to errors or missing data.


Records are a fundamental component of data structures, allowing us to store and organize related information efficiently. They provide a convenient way to group different types of data together and work with them as a single unit. By using records, we can improve the organization, abstraction, and integrity of our data.

So next time you encounter a situation where you need to store multiple pieces of related data, consider using a record to simplify your code and make it more maintainable.

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