What Is Pointer Explain Use of Pointer in Data Structure?


Angela Bailey

What Is Pointer? Explain the Use of Pointer in Data Structure

A pointer is a fundamental concept in computer programming and is especially important in data structure implementations. It is a variable that stores the memory address of another variable.

By using pointers, we can efficiently manipulate and access data stored in memory, enabling us to create complex data structures and optimize our programs.

Understanding Pointers

In simple terms, a pointer is like a “pointer” or “arrow” that points to the location where a value is stored in memory. It allows us to indirectly access and modify the value by referencing its memory address rather than directly manipulating it.

This indirection provides flexibility and power when working with data structures.

To declare a pointer in C or C++, we use the asterisk (*) symbol before the variable name, followed by its type. For example:

int* myPointer;

The above code declares a pointer named myPointer that can store the memory address of an integer (int) variable.

Pointer Operations and Usage in Data Structures

Pointers are commonly used in data structures for their ability to dynamically allocate memory, traverse linked lists, and create hierarchical structures. Let’s explore some common uses of pointers in data structures:

Dynamically Allocating Memory:

Pointers allow us to allocate memory dynamically during runtime, which means we can allocate or deallocate memory as needed. Dynamic memory allocation is essential when working with dynamic data structures like linked lists, trees, or graphs where the size of the structure may vary over time.

int* dynamicArray = new int[10];

In the above example, we use the new keyword to dynamically allocate an array of integers with a size of 10. The pointer dynamicArray will store the memory address of the first element.

Traversing Linked Lists:

Linked lists are a fundamental data structure that consists of nodes connected through pointers. Pointers enable us to traverse through linked lists by following the links between nodes. For example, let’s consider a singly linked list:

struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* next;

Node* head = nullptr; // Head node

// Traversing the linked list
Node* currentNode = head;
while (currentNode != nullptr) {
    // Process current node
    currentNode = currentNode->next; // Move to the next node

In this example, we use pointers to navigate through the linked list. The next pointer points to the next node in the list until we reach the end (where it becomes nullptr).

Hierarchical Structures:

Pointers are also useful for creating hierarchical structures like trees or graphs. In such structures, each node contains pointers to its child nodes or neighboring nodes, allowing us to represent complex relationships between elements.

struct Node {
    int data;
    Node* leftChild;
    Node* rightChild;

Node* root = nullptr; // Root node

// Accessing child nodes
Node* left = root->leftChild;
Node* right = root->rightChild;

In this example, each node in a binary tree has pointers to its left and right child nodes. We can access these child nodes using the corresponding pointers.


Pointers play a crucial role in data structure implementations, offering flexibility and efficiency when working with complex data. By understanding pointers and their usage in various data structures, we can unleash the full potential of our programs and optimize memory usage.

By incorporating pointers into our programming toolbox, we can manipulate and traverse data structures, dynamically allocate memory, and create hierarchical relationships. Through proper utilization of pointers, we can build powerful and efficient algorithms that solve complex problems efficiently.

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