What Is Object-Oriented Programming Language With Example?


Scott Campbell

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that organizes code into objects, which can be thought of as containers for data and functions. This approach allows for modular and reusable code, making it easier to manage and maintain large-scale projects. In this article, we will explore the concepts of OOP with examples in various programming languages.

Classes and Objects

In OOP, a class is a blueprint or template that defines the properties (data) and behaviors (functions) of an object. An object, on the other hand, is an instance of a class. Let’s take a look at an example in Python:

class Car:
    def __init__(self, make, model):
        self.make = make
        self.model = model

    def start_engine(self):
        print("Engine started!")

my_car = Car("Toyota", "Camry")
print(my_car.make)  # Output: Toyota
print(my_car.model)  # Output: Camry
my_car.start_engine()  # Output: Engine started!

In the above example, we define a class called “Car” with two attributes – “make” and “model”. The constructor method “__init__” initializes these attributes. We also define a method called “start_engine” which prints a message when called.

To create an instance of the Car class, we use the class name followed by parentheses like this: my_car = Car(“Toyota”, “Camry”). We can then access the attributes and methods of the object using dot notation.


Inheritance is another key concept in OOP that allows us to create new classes based on existing ones. The new class inherits all the properties and behaviors of the parent class. Let’s see an example in Java:

class Animal {
    protected String name;

    public Animal(String name) {
        this.name = name;

    public void makeSound() {
        System.out.println("Animal is making a sound");

class Dog extends Animal {
    public Dog(String name) {

    public void makeSound() {

Dog my_dog = new Dog("Buddy");
my_dog.makeSound();  // Output: Woof!

In this example, we have a parent class “Animal” with a constructor and a method called “makeSound”. We create a child class “Dog” which extends the Animal class using the keyword “extends”. The child class inherits the attributes and methods of the parent class.

We can override methods in the child class to provide different implementations. In this case, we override the “makeSound” method in the Dog class to print “Woof!” instead of the default message.


Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. This allows us to write more flexible and reusable code. Let’s see an example in C++:

#include <iostream>
using namespace std;

class Shape {
    virtual void draw() {
        cout << "Drawing a shape." << endl;

class Circle : public Shape {
    void draw() override {
        cout << "Drawing a circle." << endl;

class Square : public Shape {
    void draw() override {
        cout << "Drawing a square." << endl;

int main() {
    Shape* shape = new Circle();
    shape->draw();  // Output: Drawing a circle.

    shape = new Square();
    shape->draw();  // Output: Drawing a square.

    delete shape;
    return 0;

In this example, we have a base class “Shape” with a virtual method “draw”. We create two derived classes “Circle” and “Square” which override the “draw” method. In the main function, we create a pointer of type Shape and assign it to instances of different derived classes.

When we call the “draw” method using the base class pointer, it dynamically binds to the appropriate implementation based on the actual object type. This is called runtime polymorphism.


Object-oriented programming is a powerful paradigm that provides abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism to make code more modular and maintainable. By using classes and objects, you can organize your code into logical structures that represent real-world entities.

Remember to practice writing OOP code in your preferred programming language to solidify your understanding of these concepts. Happy coding!

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