What Is Object Oriented Programming in Simple Terms?


Scott Campbell

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that is widely used in software development. It provides a logical and structured approach to designing and organizing code, making it easier to build complex applications.

What is OOP?

OOP revolves around the concept of objects, which are instances of classes. A class is like a blueprint or template that defines the properties and behaviors an object can have. Think of a class as a cookie cutter, and objects as the cookies you can create using that cutter.

Key Concepts in OOP:

1. Encapsulation: Encapsulation is the process of bundling data (properties) and methods (behaviors) into a single unit called an object. This helps in hiding the internal details of an object and provides a clean interface to interact with it.

2. Inheritance: Inheritance allows you to create new classes based on existing ones. The new class inherits the properties and behaviors of its parent class, allowing for code reuse and creating hierarchies of related classes.

3. Polymorphism: Polymorphism means having multiple forms.

In OOP, polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be treated as if they belong to a common superclass. This enables flexibility and extensibility in designing software.

The Benefits of OOP:

Modularity: OOP promotes modularity by breaking down complex problems into smaller, manageable components (objects). Each object can be developed independently, making code maintenance easier.

Reusability: With inheritance, you can create new classes by extending existing ones, inheriting their properties and behaviors. This promotes code reuse, reducing redundancy and improving productivity.

Maintainability: The encapsulation provided by OOP makes code easier to understand, modify, and debug. Changes made to one object do not affect other objects, ensuring better maintainability of software.

Flexibility: Polymorphism allows objects of different classes to be used interchangeably, providing flexibility in designing software that can adapt to different scenarios.

OOP Example: Animals

To better understand OOP, let’s consider an example with animals. We can create a class called “Animal” that defines common properties like name and age. Each specific animal (objects) can inherit from this class and add their unique properties and behaviors.

class Animal {
constructor(name, age) {
this.name = name;
this.age = age;

eat() {
console.log(“The animal is eating.”);

class Dog extends Animal {
bark() {

let myDog = new Dog(“Buddy”, 3);
console.log(myDog.name); // Output: Buddy
myDog.eat(); // Output: The animal is eating.
myDog.bark(); // Output: Woof!

In the example above, we define an “Animal” class with a constructor and an “eat” method. Then we create a new class “Dog” that extends the “Animal” class and adds a unique behavior called “bark”. We create an instance of the “Dog” class called “myDog” and access its properties and methods.


Object-oriented programming provides a powerful way to structure code by using classes, objects, inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism. It promotes modularity, reusability, maintainability, and flexibility in software development. Understanding OOP concepts is essential for any aspiring programmer or developer.

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