What Is Object Oriented Programming How It Is Different From Procedural Concepts?


Angela Bailey

Object-oriented programming (OOP) and procedural programming are two different approaches to writing code. While both concepts have their merits, understanding the differences between them is essential for any programmer. In this article, we will explore what OOP is and how it differs from procedural programming.

What is Object-Oriented Programming?

Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that organizes code into objects, which are instances of classes. A class is like a blueprint that defines the properties and behaviors of an object. With OOP, you can create reusable code by defining classes with specific attributes and methods.

Attributes, also known as properties or data members, represent the state of an object. They can be variables that store values such as strings, numbers, or other objects.

Methods, also called member functions or behaviors, define the actions an object can perform. They are functions defined within a class.

Differences from Procedural Programming

OOP differs from procedural programming in several ways:

1. Organization:

  • In procedural programming, code is organized around procedures or functions that operate on data.
  • In OOP, code is organized around objects that encapsulate both data and behavior together.

2. Modularity:

  • In procedural programming, code tends to be divided into separate functions that may operate on shared data.
  • In OOP, objects encapsulate their own state and behavior, promoting modularity and reducing dependencies between different parts of the codebase.

3. Reusability:

  • In procedural programming, code reuse is achieved through functions and libraries.
  • In OOP, code reuse is achieved through inheritance, where one class can inherit attributes and methods from another class, and composition, where objects can contain other objects.

4. Encapsulation:

  • In procedural programming, data and functions can be separate entities.
  • In OOP, data and functions are encapsulated within objects, promoting data integrity and providing a clear interface for interacting with the object.

5. Polymorphism:

  • OOP supports polymorphism, which allows objects of different classes to be treated as instances of a common superclass.
  • This enables more flexible code that can work with different types of objects without needing to know their specific implementation details.

By embracing these principles, OOP provides a more organized and modular approach to programming compared to procedural programming. It allows for better code reuse, easier maintenance, and improved collaboration among developers working on the same project.


In conclusion, object-oriented programming (OOP) differs from procedural programming by organizing code around objects that encapsulate both data and behavior. OOP promotes modularity, reusability, encapsulation, and polymorphism. Understanding these differences is crucial for any programmer looking to improve their coding skills and develop more efficient and maintainable software solutions.

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