What Is Node and Edge in Data Structure?


Heather Bennett

Are you curious to know what exactly are nodes and edges in data structures? In this article, we will explore these fundamental concepts and understand their significance. So, let’s dive right in!

What is a Node?

A node is a fundamental building block in data structures. It represents a single element or an individual entity within a larger structure. Think of it as a container that holds some data and also provides a link (or multiple links) to other nodes.

Nodes are commonly used in various data structures like linked lists, trees, graphs, and more. Each type of data structure utilizes nodes differently based on its specific requirements.

In Linked Lists:

In linked lists, each node contains two main components:

  • Data: This is the actual information or value that the node stores.
  • Pointer: This is a reference to the next node in the sequence.

The last node in the linked list typically has its pointer set to null, indicating the end of the list.

In Trees:

In trees, each node can have multiple child nodes but only one parent node (except for the root node). The parent-child relationship between nodes enables hierarchical organization of data.

A tree node generally consists of:

  • Data: The value or information stored within the node.
  • Child Pointers: References to its child nodes, if any.
  • Parent Pointer: A reference to its parent node, except for the root node.

In Graphs:

In graphs, nodes represent individual entities, and edges represent the connections or relationships between those entities. Each node in a graph can be connected to one or more other nodes through edges.

A graph node typically includes:

  • Data: The value or information associated with the node.
  • Edge List: A list of references to nodes connected by edges.

What is an Edge?

An edge is a connection or link between two nodes in a data structure. It represents a relationship or interaction between the connected nodes. Edges are essential for traversing and accessing data efficiently within a structure.

In graphs, edges are often assigned weights or labels to indicate the nature of the relationship they represent. For example, in a social network graph, an edge could represent a friendship between two individuals.

Edges play a crucial role in defining various operations on data structures like traversal algorithms, path finding, and more. They enable efficient navigation across nodes and facilitate the analysis of relationships between different elements present in the structure.


In summary, nodes and edges are vital components of data structures that allow us to organize and represent complex relationships between different elements. Understanding these concepts is fundamental for building efficient algorithms and solving real-world problems effectively.

I hope this article has provided you with a clear understanding of what nodes and edges are in data structures!

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