Merge sort is a popular sorting algorithm in data structure that follows the divide-and-conquer approach. It is known for its efficiency and stability, making it a preferred choice for sorting large data sets. In this article, we will explore merge sort in detail and provide an example to illustrate its working.

## How Merge Sort Works

The merge sort algorithm can be summarized in three main steps:

- Divide: The unsorted list is divided into smaller sublists until each sublist contains only one element.
- Conquer: The sublists are recursively merged to form sorted sublists.
- Combine: The sorted sublists are merged to produce the final sorted list.

### Example

Let’s understand merge sort with an example. Consider an unsorted list of numbers: [8, 3, 1, 9, 4, 7]. We will go through the merge sort algorithm step by step to obtain the sorted list.

**Step 1:** Divide

We start by dividing the list into smaller sublists until each sublist contains only one element. In this case, we divide the list into six sublists with one element each: [8], [3], [1], [9], [4], and [7].

**Step 2:** Conquer

We then recursively merge these sublists to form sorted sublists. We compare adjacent sublists and merge them in ascending order. After the first round of merging, we have three sorted sublists: [3, 8], [1, 9], and [4, 7].

**Step 3:** Combine

Finally, we merge the remaining sublists to produce the final sorted list. We merge the three sorted sublists obtained in the previous step to get [1, 3, 4, 7, 8, 9], which is the sorted version of the original list.

## Advantages of Merge Sort

Merge sort offers several advantages:

__Efficiency:__Merge sort has a time complexity of O(n log n), making it highly efficient for sorting large data sets.__Stability:__Merge sort is a stable sorting algorithm. It preserves the relative order of elements with equal values.__Flexibility:__Merge sort can be easily implemented in various programming languages and is widely used in practice.

## Conclusion

Merge sort is a powerful sorting algorithm that follows the divide-and-conquer approach. It efficiently sorts large data sets while maintaining stability. By dividing the list into smaller sublists, recursively merging them, and combining them to form a final sorted list, merge sort achieves its efficiency and effectiveness.

If you are looking for an efficient and stable sorting algorithm for your data structure applications, consider implementing merge sort.