What Is Menu in PHP Scripting Language?


Angela Bailey

What Is Menu in PHP Scripting Language?

In PHP, a menu refers to a navigation system that allows users to navigate through different sections of a website or application. It is an essential component for any web development project as it provides easy access to various pages or functionalities.

Creating a Basic Menu

To create a basic menu in PHP, you can use HTML unordered lists (ul) and list items (li) along with proper styling. Let’s see an example:

  <li><a href="home.php">Home</a></li>
  <li><a href="about.php">About</a></li>
  <li><a href="services.php">Services</a></li>
  <li><a href="contact.php">Contact</a></li>

This code snippet creates an unordered list with four list items, each containing an anchor tag linking to different pages. You can replace the URLs with appropriate file names or paths based on your project’s structure.

Styling the Menu

To make the menu visually appealing, you can apply CSS styles to the HTML elements. Here’s an example of how you can style the basic menu:

<style type="text/css">
  ul.menu {
    list-style-type: none;
    margin: 0;
    padding: 0;
    background-color: #f1f1f1;
    overflow: hidden;
  ul.menu li {
    float: left;
  ul.menu li a {
    display: block;
    padding: 8px 16px;
    text-decoration: none;
    color: #333;
  ul.menu li a:hover {
    background-color: #ddd;

<ul class="menu">
  <li><a href="home.php">Contact</a></li>

This CSS code styles the menu by removing default list styles, setting a background color, applying hover effects, and aligning the list items horizontally. Feel free to modify the styles according to your project’s requirements.

Advanced Menu Features

PHP provides various techniques to enhance menus by adding dynamic features. Some of these include highlighting the active page, displaying submenus, and integrating database-driven menus.

Highlighting the Active Page

You can highlight the active page in the menu by utilizing PHP’s conditional statements. By comparing the current page URL with each menu item’s URL, you can add a specific CSS class or inline style to indicate the active page.

<ul class="menu">
  <li ><a href="home.php">Home</a></li>
  <li ><a href="about.php">About</a></li>
  <li ><a href="services.php">Services</a></li>
  <li ><a href="contact.php">Contact</a></li>

In this example, the active class is added to the list item of the current page. You can then style the active menu item using CSS.

Displaying Submenus

If you have a complex menu structure with submenus, you can use nested lists to create a hierarchical navigation system. Here’s an example:

<ul class="menu">
  <li><a href="home.php">Home</a></li>
    <a href="#">About</a>
    <ul class="submenu">
      <li><a href="history.php">History</a></li>
      <li><a href="team.php">Our Team</a></li>
  <!-- More menu items.. -->

In this example, the “About” menu item contains a submenu that appears when hovered or clicked. You can style the submenu using CSS and add JavaScript functionality for a smooth user experience.

Integrating Database-Driven Menus

If you have a large website with frequently changing pages, it is more efficient to store the menu structure in a database. By fetching the menu items from the database, you can dynamically generate the menu using PHP loops and conditional statements.

<ul class="menu">

In this example, the fetchMenuItemsFromDatabase() function retrieves an array of menu items from the database. The loop then iterates over each item and generates the corresponding list item with its title and URL.


A well-designed and functional menu is crucial for enhancing user experience and improving navigation on websites or applications. With PHP’s flexibility, you can create menus that are not only informative but also visually engaging by utilizing HTML styling elements alongside dynamic features like highlighting active pages and displaying submenus.

Remember to experiment with different styles and functionalities to find the perfect menu design for your project!

Discord Server - Web Server - Private Server - DNS Server - Object-Oriented Programming - Scripting - Data Types - Data Structures

Privacy Policy