What Is Hive Data Type?
Hive is a popular data warehousing framework built on top of Hadoop that provides a simple and efficient way to query large datasets. One of the key features of Hive is its support for various data types, which allow users to define the structure and constraints of their data. In this article, we will explore the different data types available in Hive and understand how they can be used in creating tables and manipulating data.
Numeric Data Types
Hive provides several numeric data types to represent different kinds of numbers:
- TINYINT: It is an 8-bit signed integer type, which can store values from -128 to 127.
- SMALLINT: It is a 16-bit signed integer type, with a range from -32,768 to 32,767.
- INT: It is a standard 32-bit signed integer type that can hold values between -2,147,483,648 and 2,147,483,647.
- BIGINT: It is a large integer type that supports values ranging from -9,223,372,036,854,775,808 to 9,223,372,036,854,7757
- FLOAT: It is a single-precision floating-point number that can represent fractional values with approximate precision.
- DOUBLE: It is a double-precision floating-point number that provides higher precision compared to FLOAT.
Date and Time Data Types
Hive also supports date and time-related data types for handling temporal data:
- DATE: It represents a date value in the format ‘YYYY-MM-DD’.
- TIMESTAMP: It represents a specific point in time with date and time information.
String Data Types
Hive offers various string data types to store character-based data:
- STRING: It is a variable-length character string with no maximum limit.
- CHAR: It is a fixed-length character string where you can define the length explicitly.
- VARCHAR: It is a variable-length character string with a user-defined maximum length.
Boolean Data Type
Hive provides a boolean data type that can store either true or false values. The BOOLEAN type is particularly useful when dealing with logical conditions and expressions.
Collection Data Types
Hive supports collection data types to store multiple values in a single column. The available collection types are:
- ARRAY: It represents an ordered collection of elements of the same type.
- MAP: It stores key-value pairs, where both keys and values can have different data types.
- STRUCT: It defines a complex structure composed of multiple named fields.
Hive provides a rich set of data types to handle different kinds of data efficiently. Understanding these data types is crucial for designing tables, specifying column definitions, and performing operations on data stored in Hive. By leveraging the appropriate data types, you can ensure data integrity, optimize storage, and achieve better performance in your Hive queries.