**What Is Heap Data Structure in C++?**

The heap data structure is a binary tree-based data structure that is commonly used to implement priority queues. It is a complete binary tree where each node has a value greater than or equal to its children (max heap) or less than or equal to its children (min heap).

The heap property ensures that the highest (or lowest) priority element is always at the root of the tree.

## Creating a Heap in C++

To create a heap in C++, you can use the **priority_queue** container from the Standard Template Library (STL). The **priority_queue** class is implemented as a max heap by default, meaning that the element with the highest priority will be at the top.

Here’s an example of creating a max heap using **priority_queue**:

#include#include int main() { std::priority_queue maxHeap; maxHeap.push(10); maxHeap.push(5); maxHeap.push(15); maxHeap.push(20); while (!maxHeap.empty()) { std::cout << maxHeap.top() << " "; maxHeap.pop(); } return 0; }

Output:

20 15 10 5

## Operations on Heap Data Structure

### Insertion:

To insert an element into a heap, you can use the **push()** function. The new element will be placed at the appropriate position in the heap based on its value and the heap property will be maintained.

### Deletion:

To delete the top element from a heap, you can use the **pop()** function. The top element (highest priority in a max heap or lowest priority in a min heap) will be removed from the heap, and the remaining elements will be reorganized to maintain the heap property.

### Accessing the Top Element:

To access the top element of a heap without removing it, you can use the **top()** function. This is useful when you want to retrieve the highest (or lowest) priority element without modifying the heap.

## Applications of Heap Data Structure

__Priority Queues:__Heaps are commonly used to implement priority queues, where elements with higher priorities are dequeued before elements with lower priorities.__Scheduling Algorithms:__Heaps are used in scheduling algorithms to prioritize tasks based on their importance or urgency.__Graph Algorithms:__Heaps are used in graph algorithms like Dijkstra's algorithm and Prim's algorithm for efficient selection of nodes or edges based on their weights.

In conclusion, the heap data structure is a powerful tool for managing prioritized data in C++. With its efficient operations and various applications, understanding heaps can greatly enhance your programming capabilities.