What Is Graph and Tree in Data Structure?


Heather Bennett

What Is Graph and Tree in Data Structure?

Data structures play a vital role in organizing and managing data efficiently. Two commonly used data structures are graphs and trees.

In this article, we will explore what graphs and trees are, their properties, and their applications.


A graph is a non-linear data structure that consists of nodes (also known as vertices) connected by edges. It represents relationships between different entities.

Properties of Graphs:

  • Graphs can be directed or undirected.
  • In a directed graph, each edge has a specific direction.
  • In an undirected graph, edges have no specific direction.
  • Graphs can be cyclic or acyclic.
  • A cyclic graph contains at least one cycle, which is a path that starts and ends at the same node.
  • An acyclic graph has no cycles.

Applications of Graphs:

Graphs find applications in various domains such as social networks, computer networks, route planning algorithms, recommendation systems, and more. They are used to model relationships between objects where entities can have connections with multiple other entities.


A tree is another type of non-linear data structure consisting of nodes connected by edges. It represents a hierarchical structure.

Properties of Trees:

  • A tree always has one root node that serves as the starting point for traversal.
  • Each node in a tree can have one or more child nodes (except for leaf nodes).
  • A leaf node does not have any child nodes.
  • Trees are acyclic structures, meaning they do not contain cycles.
  • There is a unique path between any two nodes in a tree.

Applications of Trees:

Trees are widely used in file systems, organization hierarchies, family trees, decision-making processes, and more. They provide a logical representation of hierarchical relationships and enable efficient searching and traversing operations.

In conclusion, graphs and trees are important data structures that help organize and represent complex relationships between entities. Understanding their properties and applications is crucial for solving real-world problems efficiently.

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