What Is Field Data Type in Salesforce?


Larry Thompson

The field data type is an essential concept in Salesforce. It determines the kind of data that can be stored in a specific field within an object.

Each field data type has its own set of characteristics, limitations, and functionality. In this article, we will explore the different field data types available in Salesforce and their significance.

Standard Field Data Types

Salesforce offers several standard field data types that cater to various types of information:

  • Text: This data type allows a user to enter alphanumeric characters and symbols. The maximum length of a text field can range from 1 to 255 characters.
  • Number: The number data type is used to store numeric values, including integers and decimals. Salesforce provides additional subtypes such as Integer, Decimal, and Currency for more precise calculations.
  • Date/Time: This data type enables the storage of both date and time values. Users can select a date using a calendar picker and enter the time manually or choose it from a dropdown.
  • Picklist: Picklists are used when there is a predefined set of values for a field. Users can select one option from the list.

    It ensures consistency and helps in accurate reporting.

  • Boolean: A boolean field stores either true or false values. It is commonly used for fields like “Is Active” or “Opt-In”.
  • Lookup Relationship: This data type establishes relationships between objects. It allows users to associate records from one object with another object using a lookup relationship field.
  • Formula: A formula field calculates its value based on specified criteria and the values of other fields. It can be used for performing calculations or displaying derived information.
  • URL: The URL data type stores website addresses. Users can click on the field value to directly navigate to the specified web page.

Custom Field Data Types

In addition to standard field data types, Salesforce also allows users to create custom field data types based on specific business requirements. These custom field data types can be created using the Salesforce Object Manager or through programming using Apex.

Examples of Custom Field Data Types:

  • Email: This data type stores email addresses and ensures that the entered value is in a valid email format.
  • Phone: Phone fields are used to store phone numbers. They can be formatted to match specific conventions and help in automating dialing processes.
  • Address: Address fields allow users to store complete address information, including street, city, state, postal code, and country details in a single field.
  • Image: The image data type enables users to upload and display images within Salesforce records.

    It is often used for visual representation or branding purposes.

  • Geolocation: Geolocation fields store latitude and longitude coordinates. They are useful for plotting locations on maps or performing distance calculations between different points.

In conclusion, understanding the different field data types available in Salesforce is crucial for efficiently managing and organizing data within your organization. By utilizing the appropriate field data types, you can ensure accurate reporting, improve user experience, and streamline business processes.

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