What Is Enumeration in Data Structure?


Heather Bennett

Enumeration in data structure is a powerful concept that allows us to define our own data types. It enables us to group related values together and give them a meaningful name.

This makes our code more organized, readable, and maintainable. In this article, we will explore what enumeration is and how it can be used in various programming languages.

What is Enumeration?

Enumeration, also known as enum, is a user-defined data type that consists of a set of named values. These values are typically constants that represent a specific set of related elements or options.

For example, consider a program that deals with different days of the week. Instead of using numbers or strings to represent each day, we can define an enumeration type called “DaysOfWeek” with values like Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and so on.

Enumerations provide an abstraction layer over numeric or string values by assigning them meaningful names. They make the code more readable and self-explanatory. Additionally, enumerations help prevent logical errors by restricting the possible values to those defined in the enumeration type.

Defining an Enumeration

In most programming languages, defining an enumeration involves creating a new type and specifying its possible values. Let’s take a look at how this can be done:

In C:

enum DaysOfWeek {

In Java:

enum DaysOfWeek {

In Python:

from enum import Enum

class DaysOfWeek(Enum):
  MONDAY = 1
  FRIDAY = 5
  SUNDAY = 7

As you can see, the syntax may vary slightly depending on the programming language, but the concept remains the same. We define a new type called “DaysOfWeek” and list its possible values. Each value is assigned a unique identifier within the enumeration.

Using Enumerations

Once we have defined an enumeration, we can use it to declare variables and perform operations. Enumerations can be used in conditionals, loops, and any other place where we would normally use a variable.

Here’s an example that demonstrates how enumerations can be used:

DaysOfWeek today = DaysOfWeek.MONDAY;

if (today == DaysOfWeek.MONDAY) {
    System.out.println("It's Monday!");
} else {
    System.println("It's not Monday.");

The above code declares a variable ‘today’ of type ‘DaysOfWeek’ and assigns it the value ‘MONDAY’. It then uses an if-else statement to check if ‘today’ is equal to ‘MONDAY’. Depending on the condition, it prints out the corresponding message.

Benefits of Using Enumerations

  • Readability: Enumerations make our code more readable by providing meaningful names for values instead of using arbitrary numbers or strings.
  • Maintainability: By defining related values in an enumeration, we make our code more maintainable. If we need to add or remove values in the future, we can do so easily in a single location.
  • Type Safety: Enumerations provide type safety by restricting the possible values to those defined in the enumeration. This helps prevent logical errors related to invalid or unexpected values.


Enumeration is a powerful concept in data structure that allows us to define our own data types with named values. It improves code organization, readability, and maintainability.

By using enumerations, we can make our code more self-explanatory and reduce the chances of logical errors. Whether you are working with C, Java, Python, or any other programming language that supports enumerations, understanding this concept will undoubtedly enhance your programming skills.

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