What Is Encapsulation in Object Oriented Programming?


Scott Campbell

What Is Encapsulation in Object Oriented Programming?

In object-oriented programming, encapsulation is a fundamental concept that allows the bundling of data and methods into a single unit known as an object. Encapsulation provides several benefits, such as data hiding, abstraction, and code organization. It helps in creating modular and maintainable code by keeping related data and behaviors together.

Benefits of Encapsulation:

Encapsulation offers the following advantages:

  • Data Hiding: Encapsulation allows the hiding of internal implementation details from the outside world. Only relevant information is exposed to other objects, preventing unauthorized access or modification of data. This enhances security and maintains data integrity.
  • Abstraction: By providing a simplified interface to interact with an object, encapsulation enables abstraction.

    Abstraction allows users to focus on what an object does rather than how it does it. It helps in reducing complexity and improves code readability.

  • Code Organization: Encapsulation promotes better code organization by grouping related data and behaviors within an object. This makes it easier to understand, update, and maintain the codebase.

How Encapsulation Works:

To achieve encapsulation in object-oriented programming, we use classes and objects. A class defines the blueprint or template for creating objects, while an object is an instance of a class.

The class encapsulates both the attributes (data) and methods (functions) that operate on those attributes. The attributes are typically declared as private or protected to enforce encapsulation.


  • A private attribute can only be accessed within the same class.
  • A protected attribute can be accessed within the same class or its subclasses.


Let’s consider an example of a Person class to understand encapsulation:

    public class Person {
        private String name;
        private int age;
        public Person(String name, int age) {
            this.name = name;
            this.age = age;
        public String getName() {
            return name;
        public int getAge() {
            return age;

In the above example, the name and age attributes are declared as private, encapsulating them within the Person class. The public getter methods (getName() and getAge()) provide controlled access to these attributes from outside the class.


  • The getter methods are marked as public so that they can be accessed by other classes.
  • The setter methods are not provided in this example to demonstrate read-only access to the attributes.

In Conclusion:

To summarize,

  • Encapsulation is a fundamental concept in object-oriented programming.
  • Data hiding, abstraction, and code organization are key benefits of encapsulation.
  • Classes and objects, along with access modifiers like private and protected, are used to achieve encapsulation.
  • Encapsulation helps in creating modular, secure, and maintainable code.

By understanding encapsulation and applying it effectively, you can build robust and scalable object-oriented programs.

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