What Is Difference Between the Procedural and Object Oriented Programming?


Scott Campbell

Procedural programming and object-oriented programming (OOP) are two different approaches to writing code. Each has its own set of characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages. In this article, we will explore the differences between procedural and object-oriented programming.

Procedural Programming

Definition: Procedural programming is a programming paradigm where the code is written as a sequence of instructions that are executed step by step. It focuses on procedures or functions that perform specific tasks.

  • Control Flow: In procedural programming, the control flow is based on function calls and jumps. The program execution starts from the main function and proceeds sequentially through other functions.
  • Data Storage: Data is stored in variables that are accessible throughout the program.

    These variables can be modified by any part of the program.

  • Code Reusability: Code reusability is limited in procedural programming as functions are usually written to perform specific tasks.
  • Data Abstraction: Procedural programming does not emphasize data abstraction. Functions operate directly on the data stored in variables.

Object-Oriented Programming

Definition: Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that organizes code around objects that represent real-world entities. It focuses on data rather than procedures.

  • Control Flow: In OOP, control flows through objects interacting with each other by invoking methods or sending messages.
  • Data Storage: Data is encapsulated within objects, making it more secure and preventing direct access from outside the object.
  • Code Reusability: OOP promotes code reusability by using inheritance and polymorphism. Inheritance allows new objects to inherit properties and behaviors from existing objects, while polymorphism allows objects to be used interchangeably.
  • Data Abstraction: OOP emphasizes data abstraction by providing classes and interfaces. Classes define the structure and behavior of objects, while interfaces define a contract that classes must follow.

Differences Between Procedural Programming and OOP

1. Approach: Procedural programming focuses on procedures or functions, while OOP focuses on objects and their interactions.

2. Code Organization: Procedural programming organizes code around functions, whereas OOP organizes code around objects.

3. Data Storage: In procedural programming, data is stored in variables that are accessible throughout the program. In OOP, data is encapsulated within objects.

4. Code Reusability: Procedural programming has limited code reusability compared to OOP. OOP allows for code reuse through inheritance and polymorphism.

5. Data Abstraction: Procedural programming does not emphasize data abstraction as much as OOP does. OOP provides classes and interfaces for data abstraction.


Both procedural programming and object-oriented programming have their own strengths and weaknesses. The choice between the two depends on the specific requirements of the project and personal preference.

Procedural programming is suitable for smaller projects or tasks that require a step-by-step approach, while object-oriented programming is well-suited for large-scale projects with complex interactions between entities.

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