What Is Dense Array in Data Structure?


Angela Bailey

A dense array is a data structure used in computer programming to store and manipulate a collection of elements. It is also known as a static array or a fixed-size array. In this article, we will explore what a dense array is, how it works, and its advantages and disadvantages.


A dense array is a container that stores elements of the same type in adjacent memory locations. It has a fixed size determined at the time of its creation. Each element in the array is accessed using an index, which represents its position within the collection.

Working Principle

When creating a dense array, memory is allocated to hold all the elements based on their size and the total number of elements. The elements are placed in consecutive memory locations, making it easy to access them using their index.


Dense Array:
Index:     0       1       2       3       4
Elements:  10      23      7       14      5

In the example above, we have a dense array with five elements. The element with value 10 is at index 0, 23 at index 1, and so on.

Advantages of Dense Arrays

  • Fast Access: Since the elements are stored contiguously in memory, accessing any element by its index is fast and efficient.
  • Predictable Performance: The time complexity for accessing an element in a dense array is constant (O(1)), regardless of its position.
  • Memory Efficiency: Dense arrays use memory efficiently since there is no need for additional pointers or metadata.

Disadvantages of Dense Arrays

  • Fixed Size: Dense arrays have a fixed size determined at the time of creation. This means they cannot dynamically grow or shrink as elements are added or removed.
  • Wasted Memory: If a dense array has a large capacity but only a few elements, it may waste memory due to the allocated but unused slots.
  • Inefficient Insertion and Deletion: Inserting or deleting an element in the middle of a dense array requires shifting all subsequent elements, resulting in poor performance.


A dense array is a simple yet powerful data structure for storing and accessing elements. It provides fast and predictable access times, making it suitable for applications where random access to elements is crucial.

However, its fixed size and inefficient insertion and deletion operations can limit its usability in certain scenarios. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of dense arrays can help you make informed decisions when choosing the appropriate data structure for your program.

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