What Is DataFrame Data Structure?


Angela Bailey

A DataFrame is a data structure in pandas library that represents tabular data. It is similar to a spreadsheet or a SQL table, where data is organized in rows and columns. The DataFrame allows you to manipulate, analyze, and visualize the data efficiently.

Creating a DataFrame

To create a DataFrame, you can pass various types of input data like lists, dictionaries, or even other DataFrames. Let’s take a look at some examples:

Using Lists

You can create a DataFrame using lists by passing them as values for each column:

import pandas as pd

data = {'name': ['John', 'Alice', 'Bob'],
        'age': [25, 30, 35],
        'city': ['New York', 'Paris', 'London']}

df = pd.DataFrame(data)

In this example, we have three columns: name, age, and city. Each column has its own list of values.

Using Dictionaries

You can also create a DataFrame using dictionaries. The keys of the dictionary will become the column names:

data = [{'name': 'John', 'age': 25, 'city': 'New York'},
        {'name': 'Alice', 'age': 30, 'city': 'Paris'},
        {'name': 'Bob', 'age': 35, 'city': 'London'}]

In this case, each dictionary represents a row in the DataFrame.

Accessing Data in a DataFrame

You can access specific rows or columns in a DataFrame using various methods:

Column Selection

To select a specific column, you can use the square bracket notation:


This will return the values in the name column.

Row Selection

To select specific rows based on conditions, you can use boolean indexing:

df[df['age'] > 30]

This will return all rows where the age is greater than 30.

Manipulating DataFrames

DataFrames provide various methods and functions to manipulate and transform the data:

Add a Column

You can add a new column to a DataFrame by assigning values to it:

df['gender'] = ['Male', 'Female', 'Male']

Remove a Column

You can remove a column from a DataFrame using the drop() method:

df = df.drop('city', axis=1)

Analyzing DataFrames

DataFrames provide powerful methods for analyzing data:

Summary Statistics

You can get summary statistics for numerical columns using the describe() method:


Data Visualization

Pandas integrates with popular data visualization libraries like Matplotlib and Seaborn. You can create various types of plots to visualize your data:

import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

df.plot(x='name', y='age', kind='bar')

In conclusion,

A DataFrame is an essential data structure in pandas that allows you to work with tabular data efficiently. It provides a wide range of methods and functions to manipulate, analyze, and visualize the data. By mastering the DataFrame data structure, you can unlock the full power of pandas for your data analysis tasks.

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