What Is Data Type in Database?


Larry Thompson

In a database, a data type is a classification that specifies the type of data that a column in a database table can hold. It determines the kind of values that can be stored in a particular column, such as numbers, text, dates, or boolean values. Understanding data types is crucial for designing efficient databases and ensuring data integrity.

Common Data Types in Databases

There are several common data types used in databases:

  • Integer: This data type is used to store whole numbers without decimal places. Examples include employee IDs or product quantities.
  • Float: The float data type represents numbers with decimal places. It is commonly used to store values like prices or quantities with fractional parts.
  • Text/Character Strings: Text data types are used to store alphanumeric characters or strings of text.

    They are often used for storing names, addresses, or descriptions.

  • Date/Time: Date and time data types are used to store specific points in time. They allow for calculations and comparisons based on dates and times.
  • Boolean: A boolean data type can only hold two values: true or false. It is commonly used for storing binary decisions like yes/no or on/off.

Data Type Considerations

When choosing the appropriate data type for a column, it’s important to consider factors such as storage space, performance, and the nature of the data being stored.

Data Integrity

The choice of data type also affects the integrity of the database. For example, using an incorrect data type may allow invalid or inconsistent values to be stored, leading to data corruption or incorrect results when querying the database.

Storage Efficiency

Choosing the most appropriate data type can have an impact on storage space. For instance, using an integer data type for a column that only needs to store numbers up to a certain range can save space compared to using a float data type.

Performance Considerations

Data types can also affect database performance. For instance, using numeric data types for calculations can be more efficient than using character strings or text types.

Specifying Data Types in Database Design

In most database management systems (DBMS), the data type of a column is specified during the table creation process. The syntax for specifying data types varies depending on the DBMS being used.

For example, in SQL (Structured Query Language), you can define a column with the integer data type as follows:

CREATE TABLE employees (
  employee_id INTEGER,
  first_name VARCHAR(50),
  last_name VARCHAR(50),
  hire_date DATE

In this example, the employee_id column is defined as an integer, while first_name, last_name, and hire_date are defined as character strings and date types respectively.


Data types play a crucial role in database design by defining the nature of the values that can be stored in each column. By choosing appropriate data types, you can ensure data integrity, optimize storage space, and improve overall database performance.

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