When working with SQL, it is essential to understand the different data types that can be used to store and manipulate data. One common data type is the **number** data type, which allows you to store numerical values in a database table. In this article, we will explore what the number data type is and how it can be used in SQL.

## What is the Number Data Type?

In SQL, the number data type is used to store numeric values such as integers, decimals, or floating-point numbers. It provides a way to represent numerical data accurately and perform mathematical operations on it.

### Number Data Type Syntax

The syntax for specifying the number data type varies slightly depending on the specific database management system (DBMS) you are using. However, in most DBMSs, you can define a column with the number data type using the following syntax:

column_name NUMBER(precision, scale)

**Column_name:**The name of the column you want to define**Precision:**The total number of digits that can be stored in the column**Scale:**The number of digits that can be stored after the decimal point

The precision and scale parameters allow you to control the range and precision of the numeric values that can be stored in a column. For example, if you define a column as NUMBER(10,2), it means that it can store up to 10 digits in total, with 2 digits after the decimal point.

### Examples of Using Number Data Type

To better understand how the number data type works in SQL, let’s look at some examples:

**Example 1:**

CREATE TABLE products (

product_id NUMBER(5),

price NUMBER(8,2)

);

In this example, we create a table called “products” with two columns: “product_id” and “price”. The “product_id” column is defined as NUMBER(5), which means it can store up to 5 digits. The “price” column is defined as NUMBER(8,2), allowing it to store up to 8 digits with 2 digits after the decimal point.

**Example 2:**

INSERT INTO products (product_id, price)

VALUES (1, 19.99);

In this example, we insert a new row into the “products” table with a product ID of 1 and a price of 19.99. Since the “price” column is defined as NUMBER(8,2), it can store this value accurately.

### Performing Mathematical Operations

The number data type in SQL allows you to perform various mathematical operations on numerical values stored in the database. You can use arithmetic operators such as + (addition), – (subtraction), * (multiplication), and / (division) to perform calculations.

**Example:**

SELECT price * 0.9 AS discounted_price

FROM products

WHERE product_id = 1;

In this example, we select the discounted price by multiplying the original price by 0.9 using the * operator. The result is aliased as “discounted_price”. We then retrieve this calculated value from the “products” table for a specific product ID.

## Conclusion

The number data type in SQL is a fundamental data type used to store and manipulate numerical values in a database. By understanding how to define and use the number data type, you can accurately represent numeric data and perform mathematical operations on it. Remember to consider the precision and scale parameters when defining a number column to ensure the accuracy and range of stored values.