**What Is Data Structure? What Are the Various Types of Data Structure? Explained**

Data structure is a fundamental concept in computer science that deals with organizing and storing data in a way that enables efficient access and manipulation. It provides a framework for representing and managing data effectively. In this article, we will explore the various types of data structures commonly used in programming.

## 1. Arrays

An array is a collection of elements of the same type stored in contiguous memory locations. It provides random access to its elements using an index. Arrays have a fixed size, which means the number of elements it can hold is predetermined during its creation.

## 2. Linked Lists

A linked list is a linear data structure consisting of nodes, where each node contains a value and a pointer to the next node. Unlike arrays, linked lists can dynamically grow or shrink as new elements are added or removed. They provide efficient insertion and deletion operations but have slower access time compared to arrays.

## 3. Stacks

A stack is an abstract data type that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. Elements can only be inserted or removed from one end called the top of the stack. The last element inserted is always the first one to be removed.

## 4. Queues

A queue is another abstract data type that follows the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) principle. Elements are inserted at one end called the rear and removed from the other end called the front. The first element inserted is always the first one to be removed.

## 5. Trees

Trees are hierarchical data structures consisting of nodes connected by edges or branches. They have one root node and can have multiple child nodes. Trees are widely used for representing hierarchical relationships such as file systems, organization structures, and decision-making processes.

### 5.1 Binary Trees

A binary tree is a type of tree where each node has at most two child nodes, referred to as the left child and the right child. Binary trees can be traversed in different ways, such as in-order, pre-order, and post-order.2 AVL Trees

An AVL tree is a self-balancing binary search tree that maintains its height balanced. It ensures the difference between the heights of its left and right subtrees is at most one. This property allows for efficient searching, insertion, and deletion operations.

## 6. Graphs

A graph is a non-linear data structure consisting of nodes (vertices) connected by edges. Graphs are used to represent relationships between objects or entities. They can be directed (edges have a specific direction) or undirected (edges have no direction).

### 6.1 Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs)

DAGs are graphs that do not contain any cycles or loops. They are commonly used in applications like topological sorting and scheduling problems.2 Weighted Graphs

A weighted graph is a graph where each edge has an associated weight or cost. Weighted graphs are often used in algorithms like Dijkstra’s algorithm for finding the shortest path between two vertices.

In conclusion, data structures play a crucial role in organizing and manipulating data efficiently in computer science. Understanding different types of data structures allows programmers to choose the appropriate one based on their requirements and optimize their algorithms for better performance.