# What Is Bipartite Graph in Data Structure?

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Heather Bennett

A bipartite graph, as the name suggests, is a type of graph in which the vertices can be divided into two disjoint sets such that there are no edges between vertices within the same set. In other words, it is a graph that can be split into two separate groups where all the edges connect vertices from one group to the other.

Bipartite graphs have various applications in computer science and data structures. They are particularly useful in modeling relationships between two different sets of objects. For example, a bipartite graph can be used to represent the relationship between students and courses, where each student is connected to the courses they are enrolled in.

To identify whether a graph is bipartite or not, we can use a technique called graph coloring. In this technique, we assign colors to vertices such that no two adjacent vertices have the same color. If we can successfully color all the vertices of a graph using only two colors, then it is bipartite.

Let’s take an example to understand this better. Consider the following graph:

## Example Graph:

In this example, we have divided the vertices into two sets: set A and set B. All edges connect vertices from one set to another set. To check if this graph is bipartite or not, we can start by assigning colors to its vertices.

## Graph Coloring:

• Step 1: Choose an arbitrary vertex and assign it a color.
• Step 2: Assign a different color to all its neighbors.
• Step 3: Repeat steps 1 and 2 for all uncolored vertices until all vertices are colored or until we find a conflict (i.e., two adjacent vertices have the same color).

Let’s apply the above steps to our example graph:

## Step 1:

• Vertex A: Color = Red
• Vertices B, C, D: Uncolored
• Vertices E, F: Uncolored
• Vertex G: Color = Blue
• Vertex H: Color = Red

## Step 2:

• Vertex B: Color = Blue (Neighbor of A)
• Vertex C: Color = Blue (Neighbor of A)
• Vertex D: Color = Blue (Neighbor of A)
• Vertex E: Color = Red (Neighbor of G)
• Vertex F: Color = Red (Neighbor of G)

## Step 3:

All vertices are now colored without any conflicts. Therefore, we can conclude that the given graph is bipartite.

Bipartite graphs have several interesting properties. One such property is that the length of the shortest path between any two vertices in a bipartite graph is always even. This property can be proved using simple reasoning and is useful in various algorithms and optimizations.

In conclusion, a bipartite graph is a type of graph where its vertices can be divided into two disjoint sets, with edges connecting vertices between the two sets. Graph coloring can be used to determine if a graph is bipartite or not. Bipartite graphs have various applications and properties that make them valuable in computer science and data structures.

If you want to learn more about bipartite graphs and their applications, be sure to check out our other tutorials and articles on data structures!