# What Is Binary Tree in Data Structure C++?

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Scott Campbell

In data structures, a binary tree is a hierarchical structure that consists of nodes connected by edges. Each node in a binary tree can have at most two child nodes, referred to as the left child and the right child.

## Structure of a Binary Tree

A binary tree is defined using nodes. Each node contains three parts:

• Value: The value or data stored in the node. It can be any type of data, such as an integer, character, or even a complex data structure.
• Left Child: A reference to the left child node.

This reference can be null if there is no left child for the current node.

• Right Child: A reference to the right child node. This reference can also be null if there is no right child for the current node.

The root of a binary tree is the topmost node, and it does not have any parent nodes. Each non-root node in the tree has one parent node connecting it to the tree.

## Types of Binary Trees

A binary tree can be classified into different types based on its properties. Some common types include:

• Full Binary Tree: A binary tree in which every non-leaf node has two children.
• Complete Binary Tree: A binary tree in which all levels except possibly the last level are completely filled, and all nodes are as left as possible.
• Perfect Binary Tree: A binary tree in which all internal nodes have two children and all leaf nodes are at the same level.
• Balance Binary Tree: A binary tree in which the difference between the heights of the left and right subtrees for every node is not more than one.

## Binary Tree Traversal

To access or visit all the nodes of a binary tree, different traversal techniques are used. The three most common types of binary tree traversal are:

• Inorder Traversal: In this traversal, nodes are visited in the order: left subtree, root, right subtree.
• Preorder Traversal: In this traversal, nodes are visited in the order: root, left subtree, right subtree.
• Postorder Traversal: In this traversal, nodes are visited in the order: left subtree, right subtree, root.

### In Conclusion

A binary tree is a fundamental data structure that plays a crucial role in various algorithms and applications. Understanding its structure and traversal techniques is essential for solving problems efficiently. By utilizing the appropriate binary tree types and traversal methods, you can effectively manipulate and analyze data within your C++ programs.