What Is BigInteger Data Type?


Larry Thompson

The BigInteger data type is a class in the Java programming language that allows for the representation and manipulation of arbitrarily large integers. Unlike the primitive integer types, such as int and long, which have a fixed size, BigInteger can handle numbers of any size, limited only by the amount of memory available.

Creating a BigInteger Object

To create a BigInteger object, you can use one of the following methods:

  • Using a String:
  • You can pass a numerical string to the BigInteger constructor to create an instance of BigInteger. For example:

        BigInteger number = new BigInteger("123456789");
  • Using a long value:
  • You can also create a BigInteger object from a primitive long value using the static method .valueOf(). For example:

        BigInteger number = BigInteger.valueOf(123456789);

Performing Operations with BigInteger

BigInteger provides various methods for performing arithmetic operations on large integers. Some of these methods include:

  • Addition:
  • To add two BigIntegers, you can use the method .add(). For example:

        BigInteger sum = number1.add(number2);

    where `number1` and `number2` are BigInteger objects.

  • Multiplication:
  • To multiply two BigIntegers, you can use the method .multiply().

    For example:

        BigInteger product = number1.multiply(number2);
  • Subtraction:
  • To subtract one BigInteger from another, you can use the method .subtract(). For example:

        BigInteger difference = number1.subtract(number2);

Comparison and Other Operations

In addition to arithmetic operations, BigInteger provides methods for comparison, division, modular arithmetic, and more. Some of these methods include:

  • Comparison:
  • You can compare two BigIntegers using methods such as .compareTo(), .equals(), and .compareToIgnoreCase().

  • Division:
  • To perform division with BigIntegers, you can use the method .divide(), which returns the quotient.

  • Modular Arithmetic:
  • BigInteger provides methods like .mod() and .modPow() for performing modular arithmetic.


The BigInteger data type in Java is a powerful tool for working with large integers. Its ability to handle numbers of any size makes it useful in situations where precision and accuracy are paramount. By utilizing the various methods provided by the BigInteger class, you can perform complex mathematical operations on large numbers with ease.

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