What Is BigInt Data Type in JavaScript?


Angela Bailey

The BigInt data type was introduced in JavaScript to overcome the limitations of the Number data type when dealing with large numbers. In JavaScript, the Number data type can accurately represent integers up to 2^53 – 1, but any number beyond that is automatically converted to a floating-point value, leading to loss of precision.

Creating BigInt Values

To create a BigInt value, you simply append the letter ‘n’ to the end of an integer literal or use the BigInt() function. For example:

  • const bigNum = 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890n;
  • const bigNum = BigInt("1234567890123456789012345678901234567890");

Operations with BigInts

The basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can be performed on BigInts just like regular numbers. Here are a few examples:

  • const result = bigNum1 + bigNum2;
  • const result = bigNum1 - bigNum2;
  • const result = bigNum1 * bigNum2;
  • const result = bigNum1 / bigNum2;


When performing arithmetic operations on BigInts, the result will always be a BigInt. However, mixing BigInts with regular numbers in arithmetic operations will result in a TypeError. To perform operations between BigInts and regular numbers, you need to convert one of them beforehand using the BigInt() function.

Comparison and Equality

To compare BigInts, you can use the usual comparison operators like ===, !==, ==, and !=. Here are a few examples:

  • bigNum1 > bigNum2;
  • bigNum1 === bigNum2;
  • bigNum1 != bigNum2;

Supported Operations and Methods

The BigInt data type supports various built-in methods such as:

  • toString(): Returns the string representation of the number.
  • toLocaleString(): Returns a string representing the number according to local conventions.
  • valueOf(): Returns the primitive value of the number.

Limits and Considerations

While BigInt allows you to work with arbitrarily large numbers, it is important to note that it comes with some limitations:

  • Memory Usage: Working with large BigInt values requires more memory compared to regular numbers.
  • No Automatic Conversion: Unlike regular numbers, BigInts are not automatically converted to other types in operations.
  • No Bitwise Operations: Bitwise operations like shifting and logical operators are not supported for BigInts.

In conclusion, the introduction of the BigInt data type in JavaScript provides a solution for working with large integers without losing precision. It enables developers to perform arithmetic operations, comparisons, and other operations on extremely large numbers while maintaining accuracy and avoiding the limitations of the regular number data type.

Gone are the days of worrying about precision loss when dealing with big numbers in JavaScript!