What Is Biconnected Graph in Data Structure?


Angela Bailey

A biconnected graph is an important concept in data structures. It is a type of graph that has a property of being connected even if any single vertex or edge is removed from the graph. In other words, a biconnected graph remains connected even after the removal of any single vertex or edge.

A biconnected graph is a connected undirected graph that does not contain any articulation points. An articulation point is a vertex whose removal from the graph would result in an increase in the number of connected components.

1. Every vertex in a biconnected graph belongs to at least two distinct simple cycles.

2. Removing any single vertex from a biconnected graph does not disconnect it.

Detecting Biconnected Graphs:
There are several algorithms to detect whether a given undirected graph is biconnected or not. One such algorithm is called Tarjan’s algorithm, which uses depth-first search (DFS) to identify the articulation points in the given graph.

The steps involved in Tarjan’s algorithm are as follows:
1. Perform DFS traversal on the given graph starting from an arbitrary vertex. 2. Keep track of the discovery time and low value for each vertex.

3. If any child of a vertex has a low value greater than or equal to its discovery time, then the parent vertex is an articulation point. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 for all unvisited vertices until all vertices have been visited.

  • Step 1: Start DFS traversal
  • Step 2: Calculate discovery time and low value for each vertex
  • Step 3: Check for articulation points
    • If child.low ≥ parent.discovery_time, parent is an articulation point
  • Step 4: Repeat steps 1-3 until all vertices have been visited

Applications of Biconnected Graphs:
Biconnected graphs have various applications in computer science and network design. Some of the key applications include:

1. Network Design: Biconnected graphs are used to design reliable and fault-tolerant networks. By ensuring that a network remains connected even after the failure of a single vertex or edge, biconnected graphs help in improving network resilience.

2. Routing Algorithms: Biconnected graphs play a crucial role in designing efficient routing algorithms for computer networks. These algorithms determine the best paths for data transmission while avoiding congestion and minimizing delays.

3. Graph Theory: Biconnected graphs form an important area of study in graph theory. They provide insights into the connectivity properties of graphs and help in understanding their structural characteristics.


In data structures, understanding the concept of biconnected graphs is essential for solving various graph-related problems efficiently. By ensuring connectivity even after the removal of vertices or edges, biconnected graphs play a vital role in network design, routing algorithms, and graph theory.

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