What Is an Array in Data Structure With Example?


Angela Bailey

An array is a fundamental data structure in computer programming that allows you to store and manipulate a collection of elements of the same type. In simpler terms, an array is like a container that can hold multiple values.

How does an array work?

Imagine you have a box with several compartments. Each compartment can store one item. You can access each compartment by its index number, starting from 0 for the first compartment.

For example, let’s say we have an array called “numbers” that stores five integers: 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50. We can represent this array as:

numbers[0] = 10
numbers[1] = 20
numbers[2] = 30
numbers[3] = 40
numbers[4] = 50

In this example, the number in square brackets represents the index of each element in the array.

Why use arrays?

Arrays are useful because they allow us to efficiently store and access multiple values using a single variable. Instead of creating separate variables for each value, we can use an array to group them together.

For instance, imagine you want to store the names of five students in a class. Instead of creating five individual variables like student1, student2, student3, student4, and student5, you can simply create an array called “students” and store all the names within it.


var students = ["John", "Mary", "Mark", "Alice", "David"];

Now you have all the student names stored in one place.

Manipulating Arrays

Arrays offer various operations to manipulate their contents:

Accessing Elements:

You can access individual elements within an array by using their respective index numbers. For example:

var students = ["John", "Mary", "Mark", "Alice", "David"];
console.log(students[2]); // Output: Mark

The above code will print the third element of the array (index 2), which is “Mark”.

Modifying Elements:

You can modify elements within an array by assigning new values to specific index positions. For example:

var students = ["John", "Mary", "Mark"];
students[1] = "Alice";
console.log(students); // Output: ["John", "Alice", "Mark"]

In the above code, we changed the second element of the array (index 1) from “Mary” to “Alice”.

Adding Elements:

You can add elements to an array using various methods, such as push(), unshift(), or direct assignment. For example:

var students = ["John", "Mary"];
console.log(students); // Output: ["John", "Mary", "Mark"]

The push() method adds a new element (“Mark”) at the end of the array.

Removing Elements:

Similarly, you can remove elements from an array using methods like pop(), shift(), or directly manipulating the indexes. For example:

var students = ["John", "Mary", "Mark"];
console.log(students); // Output: ["John", "Mary"]

The pop() method removes the last element (“Mark”) from the array.


Arrays are powerful tools in data structure that allow you to store and manipulate collections of values efficiently. By understanding how arrays work and how to manipulate them, you can enhance your programming skills and solve complex problems more effectively.

Start experimenting with arrays in your code, and you’ll soon appreciate their versatility and usefulness.

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