What Is a Queue Data Structure in Python?


Scott Campbell

In Python, a queue is a data structure that follows the FIFO (First-In-First-Out) principle. It is similar to a real-life queue, where the first person who enters the queue is the first one to be served.

The Queue Data Structure

A queue in Python can be visualized as a horizontal line with people standing in it. Each person represents an element in the queue.

To work with queues in Python, we can use the built-in module called queue. This module provides various classes and functions for implementing different types of queues.

Main Operations on a Queue:

  • Enqueue: This operation adds an element to the end of the queue. In other words, it inserts an element at the rear end of the queue.
  • Dequeue: This operation removes an element from the front of the queue.

    In other words, it retrieves and removes the element that has been waiting in the queue for the longest time.

  • Peek: This operation allows us to look at (but not remove) the element at the front of the queue. It returns the value of the first element without modifying it or removing it from the queue.
  • IsEmpty: This operation checks whether or not a queue is empty. It returns True if there are no elements in the queue, and False otherwise.
  • Size: This operation returns the number of elements present in the queue.

Implementing a Queue in Python:

To implement a queue, we can use the Queue class provided by the queue module.

We start by importing the Queue class:

<pre><code><from queue import Queue>

We can create an instance of the Queue class using the following syntax:

<pre><code><queue_instance = Queue()>

The queue_instance object now represents an empty queue. We can perform various operations on this object to manipulate and retrieve data from the queue.


<pre><code># Creating a new queue instance
queue_instance = Queue()
# Enqueueing elements to the queue
# Checking if the queue is empty
is_empty = queue_instance.empty()
# Getting the size of the queue
size = queue_instance.qsize()
# Dequeuing elements from the front of the queue
element1 = queue_instance.get()
element2 = queue_instance.get()

In the above example, we first create a new instance of the Queue class. We then enqueue three elements (10, 20, and 30) to the queue using the put() method.

We check if the queue is empty using the empty() method, which returns False because we have added elements to the queue.

We get the size of the queue using the qsize() method, which returns 3 because there are three elements in the queue.

We dequeue two elements from the front of the queue using the get() method. The variables element1 and element2 now contain 10 and 20 respectively.


The Queue class in Python is a thread-safe implementation of a simple FIFO (First-In-First-Out) data structure. It provides locking mechanisms to ensure that multiple threads can safely access and modify a shared queue without causing any inconsistencies or conflicts.

In Conclusion

A queue data structure in Python follows a simple principle where elements are added at one end and removed from another end. This makes it useful for various applications such as task scheduling, event handling, and more. By utilizing Python’s built-in queue module, you can easily implement queues in your programs.

In this article, we discussed what a queue data structure is, its main operations (enqueue, dequeue, peek), how to implement a queue in Python using the queue.Queue class, and provided an example to demonstrate its usage.

Now that you have a good understanding of queues in Python, you can incorporate them into your programs to efficiently manage and process data based on the FIFO principle.

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