What Is a Directed Multigraph in Data Structure?


Heather Bennett

A directed multigraph is a data structure that represents a collection of vertices and edges, where each edge has a specific direction associated with it. In this article, we will explore the concept of directed multigraphs and understand how they can be used in various applications.

What is a Multigraph?

A multigraph is a graph that allows multiple edges between two vertices. In other words, it can have parallel edges that connect the same pair of vertices. Unlike a simple graph where each pair of vertices is connected by at most one edge, a multigraph can have more than one edge between the same pair of vertices.

Understanding Directed Multigraphs

In addition to allowing multiple edges between two vertices, a directed multigraph also assigns directions to its edges. This means that each edge has an associated source vertex and Target vertex.

Allowing multiple edges and assigning directions to them makes directed multigraphs more expressive and flexible in modeling real-world scenarios. They can be used to represent various types of relationships or connections between objects or entities.


In a directed multigraph, vertices represent the objects or entities being connected. Each vertex can have an arbitrary number of incoming and outgoing edges.


The edges in a directed multigraph represent the connections between the vertices. Each edge has two endpoints: the source vertex from which it originates and the Target vertex where it leads to.

Parallel Edges

Similar to multigraphs, directed multigraphs also allow parallel edges between the same pair of vertices. This means that multiple edges can exist with the same source vertex and Target vertex combination.

Applications of Directed Multigraphs

Directed multigraphs find applications in various fields such as computer science, social network analysis, transportation networks, and more. Here are a few examples:

  • Social Networks: In social network analysis, directed multigraphs can be used to represent connections between individuals. The vertices can represent people, and the edges can represent different types of relationships such as friendships, followings, or interactions.
  • Transportation Networks: Directed multigraphs can model transportation systems like road networks or flight routes.

    Vertices can represent locations or cities, while edges represent the connections or routes between them.

  • Dependency Management: In software development, directed multigraphs can be used to model dependencies between modules or components. Vertices represent the modules, and edges represent the dependencies between them.


A directed multigraph is a powerful data structure that allows multiple edges and assigns directions to them. It provides a flexible way to model complex relationships and connections in various scenarios. Understanding directed multigraphs is essential for anyone working with data structures and graph theory.

By incorporating multiple edges and directions into graph representations, we gain a richer understanding of relationships and their implications. Whether it’s analyzing social networks or designing efficient transportation systems, directed multigraphs offer a versatile tool for representing real-world connections.

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