In computer science, a data structure is a way of organizing and storing data so that it can be accessed and manipulated efficiently. There are several types of common data structures that are used in various applications, each with its own advantages and disadvantages.

## Array

An array is a simple and widely used data structure that stores a fixed-size sequential collection of elements of the same type. Elements in an array can be accessed using their index position. Arrays provide constant time access to individual elements but have a fixed size that cannot be easily changed.

## Linked List

A linked list is a dynamic data structure that consists of nodes, where each node contains data and a reference to the next node in the sequence. Linked lists allow for efficient insertion and deletion operations, but accessing elements in a linked list requires traversing the list from the beginning.

## Stack

A stack is an abstract data type that follows the Last-In-First-Out (LIFO) principle. Elements are added or removed from one end called the top of the stack. Stacks are often used in algorithms such as depth-first search and backtracking.

## Queue

A queue is another abstract data type that follows the First-In-First-Out (FIFO) principle. Elements are added at one end called the rear, and removed from the other end called the front. Queues are commonly used in scheduling algorithms and simulations.

## Tree

A tree is a hierarchical data structure consisting of nodes connected by edges. Each node can have zero or more child nodes, with one designated as the root node. Trees are commonly used to represent hierarchical relationships between objects or organize information hierarchically.

### Binary Tree

A binary tree is a specific type of tree where each node has at most two children, referred to as the left child and right child. Binary trees are used in various applications such as binary search trees and expression trees.

### Heap

A heap is a complete binary tree that satisfies the heap property. The heap property states that for any given node, its value is either greater than or equal to (in a max heap) or less than or equal to (in a min heap) the values of its children. Heaps are commonly used in priority queues and sorting algorithms.

## Graph

A graph is a collection of vertices connected by edges. Graphs can be used to represent relationships between objects or model networks such as social networks or transportation networks. There are various types of graphs, including directed graphs, undirected graphs, weighted graphs, and more.

**Directed Graph:**A graph where edges have a specific direction.**Undirected Graph:**A graph where edges have no specific direction.**Weighted Graph:**A graph where edges have associated weights or costs.

These are just a few examples of common data structures used in computer science. Choosing the right data structure for a particular problem is essential for efficient algorithm design and optimization. By understanding the characteristics and use cases of different data structures, programmers can make informed decisions when developing software applications.